Skeletal System Ana Cendejas Period:7 :) (Name of bones (Wrist bones:…
Skeletal System Ana Cendejas Period:7 :
Name of bones
Wrist bones: Carpals and metacarpals
Finger, and toes: Phalanges
Collar bone: Clavicle
Pelvis: Hip bones
Shoulder blade: Scapula
Thigh bone: Femur
Hip bone: Coxal bone
Ribs: True ribs and false ribs
Structure of the Long bone
Dialysis: Shaft of compact bone. It is cover with thin connective tissues called peritoneum.
Periosteum: Membrane that covers bone.
Endosteum: Thin membrane lining Medullary cavity.
Articular cartilage: Smooth, glassy cartilage allows bones to glide past each other.
Epiphysis: Ends of a long bone. It is covered by articular cartilage. Sites of new growth is the epiphysis plate.
Types of Bones
Long bones:Attachment sites for muscles that move the body. Longer than wide.
Example: Femur, humerus, bones of fingers.
Short bones: Carpal bones and glide over one another. Cubed shaped.
Examples: Carpals, tarsals, and patella.
Flat bones: Cranial bones and protects organs and attachment sites for muscles. Thin, flattened, and usually curved.
Example: Scapula, skull, and ribs.
Irregular bones: Vertebrae and protects the spinal cord. Irregular shapes.
Example: Vertebrae , coccyx and hips.
Sesamoid bones: Patella and protects knee.
Compact bone tissue
Network of osteons (Haversian systems). It's strong but flexible and arranged in rings (concentric lamella) surrounding central. Osteon (Haversian system) is the structural unit of the compact bone. Central (Haversian) Canal is the opening in the center of the osteon.
Bone is an active tissue. Calcium is constantly being deposited and absorbed. Bone is also redesigned according to the stress and pressures acting upon it. Bone is often being made or reabsorbed at the periosteum and endosteum.
Repair of Bone Fractures
A broken bone must first be reduced. Close reduction occurs when a doctor pushes or pull the broken bones back into place. Open reduction occurs when surgery is required. Bones must be immobilized in a cast for 6-8 weeks for healings.
Osteoporosis: Bone thinning disease, makes bone fragile and break easily
Sprain: Ligament or tendons reinforcing joints are torn or stretched
Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa cause by a blow or friction
Tendonitis: Inflammation of the tendon sheaths
Arthritis: Inflammation of joints
Synovial Joint: Allows for free movement more complex than fibrous or cartilaginous joints
Cartilaginous Joint (slight movement): Cartilage connects articulating bone for example pubic symphysis.
Fibrous Joint (no movement): Fibrous connective tissue grows between two bones for example sutures of skull.
Types of Synovial Joint
4.Plane joints or gliding joints: A back and forth motion. Example: wrist and ankle
3.Hinge joint: A convex surface fits into a concave surface. Example: elbow, phalanges joints
Condillac joint (ellipsoidal): A variety of motions for example, between the metacarpals and phalanges
1.Ball and socket (spheroidal): Very wide range of motion is possible (multi axial). For example: the shoulder or hip joint
6.Saddle joint (seller):Permits movements in two planes (bi axial). Example: the joint between the trapezium and the metacarpals of the thumb
Movements allowed by Synovial joints
Flexion: Decreasing the angle at joint
Extension: Increasing the angle at a joint
Dorsiflexion: Flexion of ankle brings foot closer to shin
Plantar flexion: Flexion at ankle brings foot further away from shin
Hypertension: Extend beyond anatomical position
Abduction: Moving a part away from the midline
Adduction: Moving a part towards the midline
Rotation: Moving a part around its axis
Laternal flexion: Bending head, neck to the side
Circumduction: End of part follows a circular path
Pronation: Rotation of forearm so that the Palm is downward or facing the posterior
Supination: Rotation of forearm so that the Palm is upward or facing the anterior
5.Pivot joint: A cylindrical surface rotates within a ring of bone and fibrous tissue. Example: joints between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna
Male pelvis : Heart shaped, smaller,taller, narrower, thicker, heavier and more compact
Female Pelvis: Larger and broader, Oval shaped, and thinner/light