Skeletal System- Luz Ramirez per 5 (movements allowed by synovial joints…
Skeletal System- Luz Ramirez per 5
Bones in the body
Skull- Cranium, Temporal, sphenoid, parietal, occipital, nasal, Zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, and frontal
Shoulder Girdle- Clavicle, and scapula.
Arm- Radius, humerus, and ulna
Hand- carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
Chest- Sternum, Xiphoid, ribs, true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs, and costal cartilages.
Spine- cervicle, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx
Pelvic- llium, pubis, and Ischium
Leg- femur, tibia, fibula
Ankle- talus, calacaneus
Foot, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
Types of Bones
Flat- Ribs, Scapula, & Cranium
Short- Metatarsus & Phalanges
Long- Femur & Humerus
Anatomy of the Long Bone
Long bones grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis (the central shaft), with an epiphysis at each end of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage).
Microscopic Anatomy of Compact Bone Tissue
Each osteon consists of a lamellae of compact bone tissue that surround a central canal (Haversian canal). ... Osteons can be arranged into woven bone or lamellar bone. Osteon: A photo taken through a microscope that shows the anatomy of compact bone with a detailed view of an osteon.
Bone turnover rates differ depending on the bone and the area within the bone. There are four stages in the repair of a broken bone: 1) the formation of hematoma at the break, 2) the formation of a fibrocartilaginous callus, 3) the formation of a bony callus, and 4) remodeling and addition of compact bone.
Bone Fracture Repair
Spiral- often occur when the body is in motion while one extremity is planted.
Comminuted-is a break or splinter of the bone into more than two fragments. Since considerable force and energy is required to fragment bone, fractures of this degree occur after high-impact trauma such as in vehicular accidents.
Oblique- occur when a force is applied at any angle other than a right angle to the bone. Spiral fractures are the result of an extreme twisting force being exerted on a bone.
Impacted- occurs when the broken ends of the bone are jammed together by the force of the injury. A comminuted fracture is one in which the broken ends of the bone are shattered into many pieces
Transverse- occur as the result of a strong force applied perpendicular to the long axis of a bone
Greenstick-usually occur most often during infancy and childhood when bones are soft
Difference on male and female pelvis
Female pelves are larger and wider than male pelves and have a rounder pelvic inlet. Male iliac crests are higher than females, causing their false pelves to look taller and narrower
Leukemia: This is a cancer of the white blood cells.
Osteoporosis: This is a disease in which the bones become fragile and prone to fracture.
Osteopenia, osteitis deformans, and osteomalacia: Similar to osteoporosis, these are other types of bone loss.
Gliding joints- a back-and-forth motion; the joints of the wrist and ankles fellas those between vertebrae are gliding joints; ex: wrists and ankles move by gliding against each other
Hinge joints- a convex surface fits into a concave surface as is found in the elbow and phalanges joints
Condylar joint- a variety of motion; ex: is the joint between a metacarpal and the phalanges
Pivot joints- A cylindrical surface rotates within a ring of bone and fibrous tissue; ex: proximal ends of the radius
Ball-and-socket- very wide range of motion is possible; ex: include the shoulder and hip joints
Saddle joint- permits movement in two planes the joints between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb
movements allowed by synovial joints
Abduction- moving a part away from the midline
Adduction- moving a part away towards the midline
Hyperextension- extend beyond anatomical position
Rotation- moving a part around its axis
Plantar- flexión at ankle brings foot farther
Lateral flexion- bending head, neck, to the side
Dorsiflexion- flexion of the ankle brings foot closer to skin
Circumlocution- end of part follows a circular path
Extension- increasing the angle at the joint
Pronation- rotation of forearm so that the palm is downward or facing the posterior
Flexion- decreasing the angle at a joint
Supination- rotation of forearm so that the palm is upward or facing the anterior