APPRAISING AND IMPROVING PERFORMANCE - Coggle Diagram
APPRAISING AND IMPROVING PERFORMANCE
PURPOSES FOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Provide performance feedback
Identify individual strengths/weakness
Recognize individual performance
Determine promotion candidates
Determine transfers and assignments
Document personal decisions
DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE APPRAISAL PROGRAM
Must be based on job-related requirements derived from job analysis and reflected in job description and job specifications.
Help translate an organization’s goals and objectives into job requirements that define acceptable and unacceptable performance levels.
A process whereby managers meet to discuss the performance of individual employees to ensure their employee appraisals are in line with one another
REASONS APPRAISAL PROGRAMS SOMETIMES FAIL
Unclear performance standards
Too many forms to complete
Use of the appraisal program for conflicting (political) purposes.
Lack of top-management information and support
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS CHARACTERISTICS
Standards capture all of an individual’s contributions.
Performance capability is not reduced by external factors.
Individual standards directly relate to strategic goals.
Standards are quantifiable, measurable, and stable.
SOURCES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Appraisal done by the employee being evaluated, generally on an appraisal form completed by the employee prior to the performance interview.
Appraisal of a superior by an employee, which is more appropriate for developmental than for administrative purposes.
Manager and/or Supervisor
Appraisal done by an employee’s manager and reviewed by a manager one level higher.
Appraisal by fellow employees, compiled into a single profile for use in an interview conducted by the employee’s manager.
Based on TQM concepts; recognizes team accomplishment rather than individual performance
A performance appraisal that, like team appraisal, is based on TQM concepts and seeks evaluation from both external and internal customers
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHODS
Mixed Standard Scale
An approach to performance appraisal similar to other scale methods but based on comparison with (better than, equal to, or worse than) a standard.
Requires the rater to choose from statements designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful performance.
Graphic Rating Scale
A trait approach to performance appraisal whereby each employee is rated according to a scale of individual characteristics.
Requires the rater to compose a statement describing employee behavior.
The rater checks statements on a list that the rater believes are characteristic of the employee’s performance or behavior.
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
Consists of a series of vertical scales, one for each dimension of job performance; typically developed by a committee that includes both subordinates and managers.
An unusual event that denotes superior or inferior employee performance in some part of the job
The manager keeps a log or diary for each employee throughout the appraisal period and notes specific critical incidents related to how well they perform.
Behavior Observation Scale (BOS)
A performance appraisal that measures the frequency of observed behavior (critical incidents).
Preferred over BARS for maintaining objectivity, distinguishing good performers from poor performers, providing feedback, and identifying training needs.
Appraisals based on quantitative measures (e.g., sales volume) that directly link what employees accomplish to results beneficial to the organization.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A philosophy of management that rates performance on the basis of employee achievement of goals set by mutual agreement of employee and manager.
Types of Appraisal Interviews
Tell and Listen - nondirective
Problem Solving - focusing the interview on problem resolution and employee development
Tell and Sell - persuasion
Managing Ineffective Performance
Possible Courses of Action
Transfer employee to another job or department
Attention of actions to motivate employee
Provide training to increase skills and abilities
Do not treat underperformer differently, setting the employee up to fail.
All actions taken must be objective and fair.