Topic 1: Astronomy, Moon, Age, Landing/Arrival, spacex , nasa , E, …
Topic 1: Astronomy
Yerkes Luminosity: Ia, Ib, II, III, IV, V
How they work
Stars are sustained through nuclear fusion; they typically start with a lot of H, which they combine to form He. Typically, after they run out of H, they begin to combine He, and begin to die. The largest element that stars can form is Fe.
They typically form from stellar nebulae, when the particles that make up the nebulae begin to combine and pack together to form a large ball of gas.
The death of stars are often indicated by when they begin to expand into giants. At the end, they often form either a blackhole, supernova, or white dwarf depending on how massive they are
1.3, 2.9, 3.1, 3.16
Started off in order to combat the USSR during the Cold War Space Race
Government agency responsible for Earth and space science
Facilitate many American research and observatories stations
European Space Agency
Responsible for managing and coordinating Earth and space research in Europe
More commercial space travel focus than exploratory or scientific
Must have enough power to counteract gravity and leave the atmosphere/gravitational influence
Time of day and what type of weather is too extreme to launch; how sensitive is the launch
If needed, how well preserved must the materials and everything be?
Most returns are automated, so can the computer perform calculations and make decisions if something goes wrong?
What conditions must be considered for return, such as weather?
1.1, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, 2.10, 2.11, 3.1, 3.3, 3.12, 3.13, 3.16, 5.1, 5.4, 5.5, 5.8, 5.9
3.4, 3.16, 5.6
Time (large scale)
The expansion of the universe is constantly increasing; many say that this is because dark energy, but we have yet to learn much about it.
This also means that objects are moving away from one another at different rates, a fact that allows scientists to calculate the estimated age of the universe
The Big Rip: Since the universe keeps expanding, and space-time is often described as a fabric, there's a hypothesis that it will begin to rip as the universe continues to expand
Big Freeze: As the universe continues to expand, and objects move further and further from one another, everything will get so far from other objects that it will all become too cold for interactions
The Big Crunch: Similar to the Big Bang, the universe would end the opposite of how it began: by just suddenly crunching back up
The Big Bang: The most widely accepted description in the scientific community of how the universe began. Everything started off as nothing and everything, and suddenly, exploded and began expanding, which it still does today.
Maximized efficiency of everything
Variety of landing techniques
Multitude of sensors and technology
Similar to Moonbase section
Alternative Energy Sources (1.3)
Maximized potential of all resources/supplies
Chemical processes to alter Mars' atmosphere (1.5, 1.7, 2.7, 2.9, 5.1, 5.18)
What are the bare necessities of growing plants (1.1)
The Milky Way and Andromeda are predicted to converge in the far future. When this happens, the resulting galaxy will be in a state of high star formation due to the increased interaction between the two galaxies.
Chemical processes required to sustain life (1.5, 1.7, 2.7, 2.9, 5.1, 5.18)
Maximizing the potential of all supplies
If returning to Earth, what is the minimum required resources needed for a safe liftoff and landing?
1969 Moon Landing
Currently, the known universe is about 13.8 billion years old
Calculations of age of celestial bodies are heavily determined by distance, luminosity, and magnitude
Time of launch must coordinate in order to hit target at the right time and location
Orientation of landing and max landing speed must be calculated