A 12 year old boy is brought in with injury to the right arm, bone appears…
A 12 year old boy is brought in with injury to the right arm, bone appears to be broken and protruding the skin. Kid is known for having a poor diet and is lactose intolerant.
Transverse - The break is in a straight line across the bone.
Compression - Bone is crushed.
Comminuted - Bone fragments into three or more pieces.
Spiral - Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone.
Depressed - Broken bone portion is pressed inward.
Epiphyseal - Epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate.
Greenstick - Incomplete break, only one side of the shaft breaks, the other side bends.
Stages of Bone Healing
1 - A hematoma forms
Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
Bony callus forms
Bone remodeling occurs
Location - In the metaphysis at each end of a long bone.
Role - A growth plate is a disc of cartilage that is organized into physiologic pattern that when it matures, is responsible for longitudinal growth of long bones.
Form - Ossification process by which new bone is produced. Bone is formed in the embryo. A framework is laid down that determines where bones will form.
Grow - Grow length at the epiphyseal plate. The cartilage in the region of the epiphyseal plate grows by mitosis. Process continues throughout childhood and adolescent years until it slows down and stops.
Remodel - Is a lifelong process where mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (bone resorption) a new bone tissue is formed.
Resorption - Osteoclasts digest old bone
Reversal - Mononuclear cells appear on the bone surface
Formation - Osteoblasts lay down new bone until the resorbed bones is completely replaced.
Bone Growth - Calcium, Protein, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Vitamin D, Potassium, Fluoride
Minerals & Vitamins
Manganese, Copper, Boron, Iron, Zinc, Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Vitamin C, B vitamins.
Repair - Polymers, Desmineralized bone matrix, Coral, Alumina, zirconia, Hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, coralline.
End of long bone is the epiphysis and the shaft is the diaphysis.
Outside of the flat bone consists of a layer of connective tissue called periosteum.
The interior part of the long bone is the medullary cavity with the inner core of the bone cavity being composed of marrow.
Cells - Osteoclasts, Osteoblasts, Living cells, Osteocytes
Osteoclasts - Large cells that dissolve the bone. They come from bone marrow and are related to white blood cells.
Osteoblasts - Cells that form new bone. They come from the bone marrow and are related to structural cells
Living cells - They regulate passage of calcium into and out of the bone and they respond to hormones by making special proteins that activate the osteoclasts.
Osteocytes - cells inside the bone. They send out long branches that connect to other osteocytes. Also help to direct where osteoclasts will dissolve the bone.
Long bones in body - Tibia, fibula, femur, metatarsals, humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals and phalanges.
Irregular, Flat, Long, Short, Sesamoid
Irregular -Sesamoid, Ethmoid, Hyoid, Maxilla, Inferior Nasal Concha
Flat -Sternum, Vomer, Rib, Occipital, Frontal, Scapula, Pareital, Lacrimal, Nasal, Hip.
Long -Sesamoid, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Phalanx, Metatarsal, Metacarpal
Bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bones protect various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support the body and enable mobility.
Child is lactose intolerant, never consumes dairy products. Only eats junk food.
Bones are weaker due to child being lactose intolerant and having a poor diet.
Open fracture - part of the bone in the
upper arm appears to be protruding from the skin
Diet - Continuing to eat junk food will take longer for the fracture to heal.
Diet - Consuming food that contains calcium will help with the healing process much quicker.
Location - Will have to wear a cast and will have to be careful when doing activities so his fracture can heal.
Location - Will have to adjust with not being able to depend on his right arm as much.
Age - Will recover faster since young, takes longer to heal if older.