70 y.o. Female with viral infection in lungs (Down Stream Effects…
70 y.o. Female with viral infection in lungs
Up Stream Causes
Patient is 70 y.o. due to old age, thymus shrinkage=lower ability of immune system to fight things such as Viral Infection in lungs
Pneumonia is an infection inflammation of the lungs, in which Fluid accumulates in the alveoli causing breathing difficulty and wet wheezy cough
When alveoli fill with fluid instead of air= prevents oxygen from being absorbed in blood.
High altitudes can be dangerous for people who have COPD, severe emphysema or severe heart disease. Perhaps patient has undiagnosed lung issues before moving to Denver
Down Stream Effects
Old age is a factor in elderly pneumonia due to their smaller Thymus and inability to tolerate infection compared to younger people.
If bacteria is the cause of pneumonia than it can get in the blood and cause bacteremia which can lead to septic shock
Bacterial Pneumonia damages the heart by killing heart cells, increasing chances of heart failure, abnormal heart rhythms and heart attack.
Pneumonia is the 8th most common cause of death in the US. There are more than 50 varieties of pneumonia that are viral or bacterial.
Bacterial Pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics
Viral Pneumonia can't be knocked out with antibiotics. In a weakened elderly immune system can lead to death.
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema can occur in people who travel to very high altitudes and aren't acclimatized.
Acute Pulmonary edema is life threatening= causing shortness of breath, hypoxia, irregular heartbeat, feeling of drowning/suffocating, bubbly wheezing gasping sound when you breathe, cynosis of skin, pink froth sputum
High Altitude Cerebral Edema can occur because of hypoxia due to low oxygen environment. Causes: brain to swell with fluid resulting in severe impairment and if untreated, death by brain herniation
If Pneumonia untreated: pleura can get swollen causing sharp pains, pluera may fill with fluid causing pleural effusion, or Pleurisy(inflamed pleura)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Elderly with severe pneumonia are more likely to get respiratory failure due to lungs becoming severely injured. Could be put on mechanical ventilator
Rarely: If Pneumonia is due to Bacteria and patient develops bacteremia or septic shock than their heart won't be able to pump blood to the kidneys, and then they go into kidney failure.
Respiratory Physiology at Alveoli Level
walls of alveoli are composed of single layer of squamous epithelial cells, together with the capillary walls and their fused basement membranes= respiratory membrane--> blood flowing past on one side and gas on the other=
gas exchange occur readily by simple diffusion across this membrane. Oxygen passes from alveolus to blood and CO2 leaves blood to enter gas filled alveolus to be exhaled out of lungs
Gas Laws that describe the
diffusion of gases across membranes:
Oxygen enters and Carbon Dioxide leaves blood in the lungs by diffusion
Boyle's law: increase in volume= decrease in pressure and vice versa
Dalton's Law: total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the SUM of the pressure exerted independently by each gas in the mixture
Partial Pressure= the pressure exerted by each gas is directly proportional to the percentage of that gas in the gas mixture
At HIGH altitudes partial pressure declines in direct proportion to the decrease in atmospheric pressure.
In Opposite direction, for every 33 feet of descent below sea level atmospheric pressure increases by 1 atm and partial pressure by each component gas is quardrupled
Henry's Law: when a gas is in contact with a liquid, the gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
If the partial pressure of the gas is greater in the liquid than in the gaseous phase, the gas will reenter the gas phase (i.e. diffuse out of the blood and enter the air in the alveoli)
Effects of inflammation on respiratory System
Pleurisy= infllammation of pleura of lungs. Causing severe pain as swollen inflamed pleura rub against each other.
Pneumonitis= inflammation of lung tissue and alveoli. Leading to difficulty breathing and difficult for oxygen to pass through alveoli into bloodstream
Bronchitis: inflammation of bronchial tubes, causes cough that brings of mucus, shortness of breath and wheezing
Anatomy of Lungs
Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Conchae
Lined with Olfactory and Respiartory Mucousa
Nose made of
Hyaline Cartilage Connective tissue and
lined with stratified squamous epithelium
Except for Epiglottis which is Elastic Cartilage:
Laryngeal Cartilages are all Hyaline Cartilage
Pharynx made of
Skeletal Muscle and
lined with stratified squamous epithelium
made of Hyaline Cartilage, and
lined with Ciliated Psuedostratified Columnar Epithelium
Left and Right Bronchi--> Secondary Bronchi-->
Tertiary Bronchi--> Bronchioles
Alveolar Ducts--> Aloveolar Sacs of Alveoli
made of Simple Sqaumous Epithelium
Two lobes made of Stroma of elastic Connective Tissue
Serous and Visceral