E219 week 2 Attachment in the early years (reading: Chapter 1 Attachment…
E219 week 2 Attachment in the early years
her research is slightly debunking the theory 0-1 attachment sets a path for life. esp cognitive development. emotional and social dev are more influenced by attachment.
short term period, even 6 months, can really affect long term.
is my tutor an expert on attachment?
reading: Chapter 1 Attachment in the EY : John Oates
young mammals and other creatures instinctively follow their elders for basic needs &protection etc
Konrad Lorenz, an ethologist (one who studies animal behaviour), goslings followed 'imprinted' him as he was first moving thing in their environment
dependancy of babies is longer than other species
only since twentieth century have we identified significance of attachment
Harry Harlow (1958) monkey experiment - wire cone with milk v cloth
comfort blanket?? image but no explanation
Bowlby termed an ‘internal working model’ (IWM)
initial relationships form an expectation
Bowlby's theory hits a nerve more than some other theories as makes people analyse their childhood and how it impacts on now - however, sometimes he's accused of saying things he didn't so worth looking carefully at what he did and didn't say.
Eg. He did not say MOTHER only important. attachment can be to any caregiver or givers. In fact a network is better! This consoles the 'working mums' guilt.
(Winnicott, 1964) ‘good-enough mother’ spoiling a child not beneficial. Can be too attentive and wrap in cotton wool.
Strange Situation Test (SST)
Type a-D? Or A-C with futther classification??
Type B- secure attachment (classic Daisy)
nurturant, attentive, non-restrictive parental care – and harmonious infant–parent interactions
( de Wolff and van IJzendoorn, 1997; Posada et al., 1999; Thompson, 1998).
parent's responded and validated whole range of emotions.
only really works/reliable with 9-18 month olds!
doing experiment at home does not really work as in that environment children tend to feel safe anyway.
Type A - Insecure -avoidant
can be intrusive, over-stimulating, rejective parenting
Mothers responded least of all types and didn't respond to neg emotions. children reacted less than other children anyway
Type C- Insecure- Ambivelant
inconsistant, un responsive parenting
did not respond much and only responded to negative emotions making them seem more valid.
Type D - other insecure - Erratic
more likely from abused or maltreated children . genetic factors proving to be a link
good for TMA !!
Impossible to predict future impact 100% only follows pattern if ongoing attachment remains same. Suggesting parent/ CHILD not Baby or ongoing more important.. (Belsky and Fearon, 2002).
(Lamb et al., 1985; Thompson, 1998)
Bretherton et al. (1981) and Fonagy and Target (1997)
(Meins et al., 2001) carried out a study of 71 mothers and their infants.
environment & genetics(esp type4) are influential
Acknowledgement that sensitive parenting=secure attachments has seen parenting programmes offered esp to those identified as most at need. & short 5-16 wk courses seem beneficial.
Krakow, E. (2006) ‘Attachment interventions: less is more’, Bulletin of the Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development [Online], Montreal, QC, Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development.
researchers from the Centre for Child and Family Studies at Leiden University in the Netherlands analyzed 70 published studies of attachment-based interventions.*
post 6 months best- problems arising but not ingrained.
short term, intensive/focused suffice
parents to look in mirror to scrutinise what is good and where struggling/lacking/
Waters, E. and Cummings, E. (2000) ‘A secure base from which to explore close relationships’, Child Development, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 164–72
come back to this later in module