New Spain (it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding…
it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. The monarch had sweeping power in the overseas territories,
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva España
It originated in 1521 after the fall of Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north
It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a Kingdom (Spanish: reino), the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the kingdom was Mexico City, established on the ancient Tenochtitlan.
It included what is now Mexico plus the current U.S. states of California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Oregon, Washington, Florida and parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Kansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana;
as well as the southwestern part of British Columbia of present-day Canada; plus the Captaincy General of Guatemala (which included the current countries of Guatemala, the Mexican state of Chiapas,
Other kingdoms of the Spanish Empire bordered New Spain and were given the right of appeal to the most senior representative of the king. These kingdoms were independent of New Spain (separate from New Spain itself): Nueva Galicia (1530);
New Spain proper was itself organized in captaincies general. There were four captaincies: Captaincy General of the Philippines (1574), Captaincy General of Cuba, Captaincy General of Puerto Rico and Captaincy General of Santo Domingo.
These independent kingdoms and territorial subdivisions each had their own governor and captain generals
(who in New Spain was the viceroy himself, who added this title to his other dignities). In Guatemala, Santo Domingo and Nueva Galicia
For this reason, these hearings were considered "praetorial."
There were two great estates in America. The most important was the Marquisate of the Valley
The other estate was the Duchy of Atlixco, granted in 1708, by King Philip V to José Sarmiento de Valladares, former viceroy of New Spain and married to the Countess of Moctezuma, with civil and criminal jurisdiction over Atlixco, Tepeaca, Guachinango, Ixtepeji and Tula de Allende
Another important Marquisate was the Marquisate of Buglas in Negros Island at the Philippines which was awarded to the descendants of Sebastian Elcano and his crew, the first to circumnavigate the world
New Spain developed highly regional divisions, reflecting the impact of climate, topography, indigenous populations, and mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico
had dense indigenous populations with complex social, political, and economic organization. The northern area of Mexico, a region of nomadic
and semi-nomadic indigenous populations, was not generally conducive to dense settlements, but the discovery of silver in Zacatecas in the 1540s drew settlement there to exploit the mines
Silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain and transformed the global economy
New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, making the kingdom a vital link between Spain's New World
From the beginning of the 19th century, the kingdom fell into crisis, aggravated by the Peninsular War, and its direct consequence in the kingdom, the political crisis in Mexico in 1808
which ended with the government of Viceroy José de Iturrigaray and, later, gave rise to the Conspiracy of Valladolid and the Conspiracy of Querétaro
This last one was the direct antecedent of the Mexican War of Independence, which, when concluding in 1821
disintegrated the viceroyalty and gave way to the Mexican Empire, in which finally Agustín de Iturbide would be crowned.
The viceroyalty was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521 as a New World kingdom dependent on the Crown of Castile, since the initial funds for exploration came
was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania.
The king possessed not only the sovereign right but the property rights; he was the absolute proprietor, the sole political head of his American dominions. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him
It was on this basis that the conquest, occupation, and government of the [Spanish] New World was achieved.
The first Viceroyalty of New Spain was installed in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain as the king’s “deputy” or substitute. He was the first New World viceroy and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th-century Bourbon Reforms
The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas 'Septentrion', from North America and the Caribbean, to the Philippine, Mariana and Caroline Islands.
At its greatest extent, the Spanish crown claimed on the mainland of the Americas much of North America south of Canada, that is: all of present-day Mexico and Central America except Panama; most of present-day United States
To the west of the continent, New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies (the Philippine Islands, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, parts of Taiwan, and parts of the Moluccas).
To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies (Cuba, Hispaniola (comprising the modern states of Haiti and the Dominican Republic)
Puerto Rico, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Trinidad, and the Bay Islands).
Until the 18th century, when Spain saw its claims in North America threatened by other European powers, much of what were called the Spanish borderlands consisted of territory now part of the United States
This was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and was considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico
To shore up its claims in North America, starting in the late 18th century Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. On the mainland, the administrative units included Las Californias,
that is, the Baja California peninsula, still part of Mexico and divided into Baja California and Baja California Sur; Alta California (present-day Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, western Colorado, and southern Wyoming); (from the 1760s) Louisiana
The Caribbean islands and early Spanish explorations around the circum-Caribbean region had not been of major political, strategic, or financial importance until the conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521
However, important precedents of exploration, conquest, and settlement and crown rule had been initially worked out in the Caribbean
which long affected subsequent regions, including Mexico and Peru. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity and wealth from what they had encountered in the Caribbean
This presented both an important opportunity and a potential threat to the power of the Crown of Castile, since the conquerors were acting independent of effective crown control.
The societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, Charles V created the Council of the Indies[Note 1] in 1524 as the crown entity to oversee the crown's interests in the New World.
Since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions
Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, but extremely important, advisory body to the monarch.
The crown had set up the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and more efficient
Philip II sought systematic information about his overseas empire and mandated reports, known as the Relaciones geográficas, with text on topography, economic conditions, and populations among other information. They were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists
The Francisco Hernández Expedition (1570–77), the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information on medicinal plants and practices.