Two fractures in the right arm (Classification of Bone Fractures (Hairline…
Two fractures in the right arm
Direct Cause: Fell Fwd while running and landed on right arm causing two fractures to occur in the limb.
Indirect Cause: Because of inadequate calcium and nutritional consumption, bones where not strong or dense enough to withstand the stress of falling on arm.
: Builds up bone for growth
: are mature osteoblasts that support the structure of bone
: breaks down bone for bone reabsorption
Osteoprogenitor Cells: stem cells of bone that can differentiate into specialized bone cells that perform different functions
Tissue Type: Connective Tissue
Compact Bone Connective Tissue
Lacunae - small pit in bone that contain cells
Osteons - cylindrical structures in compact bone that contain a matrix and osteocytes
Central Canal - in the center of osteons and allows for nerves and blood vessels to pass through it.
Concentric Lamellae - layers of compact bone that surround a central canal.
Canalaculi - allows for transportation of substances to adjacent cells within a lacunae
Spongy Bone Connective Tissue
Red bone marrow: Hemopoesis
Yellow bone marrow: storage of fats
Trabeculea - columns and plates of bone that creates cavities which contains the bone marrow
Bone Structure: Long Bone
Contains: Medullary Cavity and Yellow bone marrow
Place where bone growth occurs, seperates the epiphysis from the diaphysis
Contains: Red bone marrow
Layers: Superficial to Deep
Bone Formation, Growth, and Remodeling
Interstial: in length
within epiphyseal plate
Appositional: in width
Osteoblast: Forms bone when there is too much Calcium in blood
Osteoclast: Breaks down bone when there is a lack of calcium
- The addition of new bone tissue and the removel of old bone tissue
- Formation and development of bone connective tissue
(1.) Ossification forms when thickened mesenchyme splits into osteoprogenitor cells which then seperates into osteoblast which start to secrete osteoids. (2.) Osteiods undergo calcification which entraps osteoblasts in lacunae forming osteocytes. (3.) Woven bone and its surrounding periosteum forms. (4.) Lamellar bone replaces woven bone, as compact bone and spongy bone form.
(1.) The fetal hyaline cartilage develops, chondrocytes are trapped within lacunae and perichondrium surrounds the cartilage (2.) Cartilage calcifies and periosteol bone collar forms (3.) The primary ossification center forms in the diaphysis called the periosteal bud, which starts to form opsteoblasts which produce osteiods. This causes osteocytes to form within lucunae. (4.) Secondary ossification centers form in the epiphysis and is follows in step 3. (5.) Bone replaces almost all cartilage, except articular cartilage and epiphyseal cartilage. (6.) Bone continues to grow in length until epiphyseal plates ossify and in width.
Classification of Bone Fractures
Avulsion - complete severing of body part
Colles - fracture of the distal end of the lateral forearm
Comminuted - bone is splintered into many small pieces
Complete - broken into two or more pieces
Compound - broken ends of the bone protrude from skin
Compression - bone is squashed
Depressed - forms a concavity
Displaced - fractured parts are out of anatomical alignment
Epiphyseal - epiphysis is seperated from diaphysis
Greenstick - one side breaks other side bends
Hairline - fine crack
Impacted - one fragment of bone is firmly driven into the other
Incomplete - partial fracture does not extend all the way through the bone
Linear - fracture is parallel to long axis of bone
Oblique - fracture that is at an angle
Pathologic - weakening of bone caused by disease process
Pott - fracture is at the distal end of the tibia and fibula
Simple - bone does not break through skin
Spiral - Fracture spirals on long axis of the bone
Stress - thin fractures formed from repeated stressful impact
Transverse - fracture is at right angles to the long axis of the bone
Bone Repair: (Step)- 1. A Fracture Hematoma Forms (Step)- 2. A Fibrocartilaginous Callus Forms (Step)- 3. A Hard Bony Callus Forms (Step)- 4. The Bone is Remodeled
Possible Fractures: All can be visible seen when broken
Because the boy is young the damaged growth plate may stunt the humerus's growth in length.
" fragments of bone in the wound"
" bone in the upper arm appears to be protruding from the skin"
Because of the lack of calcium bone was not strong or thick enough to withstand splintering