Macronutrient Adv Topics Exam Study Guide ( Nutritional Genomics…
Macronutrient Adv Topics Exam Study Guide
Definitions of –nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, SNP, epigenetics
Nutrigenomics: How foods affect gene expression
SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphisms: genetic mutation that involves a single base pair that alters function.
Epigenetics: How diet affects methylation patterns in utero
Nutrigenetics: How genetic makeup affects the body’s response to certain foods and its implications on health status/disease risk.
SNPs that affect glucose metabolism
According to Ortega et al. what food components affect glucose metabolism? By what mechanism? Provide at least 3-4 specific examples
Flavonoids (See table on Ortega p 5-6)
chlorogenic acid (coffee)
Vitamin (See table 2; p 9)
Ascorbic acid (vit C)
BCAA - isoleucine, lecine, valine
aromatic AA - phenylalanine, tyrosine
MUFA oleic acid vs linoleic acid
According to Franzago et al. what SNPs affect glucose metabolism and diabetes risk?
What is the mechanism(s) contributing to these effects? How does this vary compared to epigenetic factors?
What endocrine factors affect glucose regulation, how specifically to insulin, glucagon, leptin, and adiponectin play a role?