GCSE Triple Science P8: Space Physics (Life cycle of a star (Main sequence…
GCSE Triple Science P8: Space Physics
Objects in space
an object that orbits a star but is either not spherical or has not cleared its orbit of other objects
An object made of gas that emits heat and light
An object that orbits a star, is massive enough to have become spherical due to gravity, and has cleared its orbit of other objects.
System of planets around a star. Ours is mercury, venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, uranus, Neptune.
A natural object that orbits a planet
Collection of many stars, often millions or billions
All of space and time and their contents
The Big bang
Theory stating the universe started from a very high energy, dense singularity 13.8 bn years ago
An apparent shift in frequency in the waves emitted from an object coming towards and moving away from the observer. As it moves towards you, the frequency apparently increases and the wavelength decrease, and vice versa
An apparent shift in the frequency of light waves being emitted from a distant, moving object. Specifically towards the red end of the light spectrum as it moves away.
Objects in space are moving apart from each other. the more distant the object/galaxy, the faster it moves away
Life cycle of a star
Main sequence star
Fuse hydrogen into helium. main sequence stars remain stable because the forces of fusion and gravity are in equilibrium
Star has run out of hydrogen to fuse in the core. Depending on its size, elements up to iron can be made from fusion.
The hot, dense beginnings of a star. the gas has beeen brought together by gravity, friction is causing heat but it is not hot enough for fusion to occur.
red giants that come from stars more massive than our sun
A cloud pf gas and dust in space. Over time gravity causes the gas to come together to form a protostar
White Dwarf - Black Dwarf
the dense core of a star that remains after fusion has stopped. it is very hot so still emits radiation
A black dwarf is when the white dwarf has stopped emitting radiation
explosion of a star. Enough energy is released to cause elements heavier than iron to be fused together. Only in very massive stars
Collapsed core of a giant star remaining after a supernova
Only the most massive of stars. A super dense region of spacetime made by the death of a huge star. has a massive gravitational force.
Objects move at a constant speed, velocity is constantly changing due to the direction constantly changing.
The object is constantly accelerating towards the centre.
centripetal force keeps the object in circular motion.
A decrease in the radius = increase in the speed so the orbit remains stable and vice versa
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The joining of smaller nuclei into larger nuclei, releasing energy in the process