Chapters 7-8 (Han Emperors in China ch.7 (China's First Rulers (Liu…
Han Emperors in China ch.7
China's First Rulers
Objectives: Destroy rival's power and win popular support
Established centralized government, introduced commandaries (local provincials), departed from strict legalism, lowered taxes and harsh punishments.
Started as one of Xiang Yiu's generals and eventually ruled the Han Dynasty with an aristocratic government.
Objective: Keep control of the throne
Named infants as emperors of the dynasty as an effort to keep herself in rule.
Objectives: Expand the Chinese Empire, appoint qualified people to government jobs
He held the throne the longest as the "Martial Emperor" , made allies with the Xiongnu enemies, and attempted to keep the northwest border safe by settling troops.
the grandchild of Liu Bang
Objectives: To restore order and bring the country under control
Marked the end of the first half of the Dynasty, minted new money for the shortage, fed China's poor, and took away land from the rich.
Paper is invented: This new invention is cheap and convenient for record keeping. This made books available, allowed education to spread and the Chinese government to grow.
Government makes techniques of silk production a secret so Chinese commerce would expand along the silk road to most of Asia and through India.
Territorial expansion brings people of many cultures under Chinese rule.
This encouraged assimilation: process of making conquered peoples part of the chinese culture.
Encouraged intermarriage, sent farmers to newly colonized areas, set up schools to teach confucian philosophy
Gap between rich and poor increases: Small farmers went into debt or had to borrow money from large landowners.
Large landowners didn't have to pay taxes
Centralized Government: Central authority controls the running of the state.
Civil Service: Government jobs that civilians obtained by taking elimentations
Monopoly: Group that has exclusive control over production and distribution of certain goods.
Diverse Societies in Africa ch.7
San of the Kalahari Desert
they learned to domesticate animal, they were hunter-gatherers
uncovered by archaeologists in 1977 they fished, herd cattle and make pottery
smelted iron to make tools there existence was found by artifacts
Migration Case Study: Bantu-speaking peoples ch.8
The Bantu-speaking people started raising goats and sheep in just one place, instead of bringing along the cattle wherever they constantly moved to.
Farming techniques changed from the slash and burn method to farming on the riverbanks as they moved southward to a permanent location.
Reasons For Migration
The population of West Africa increased and needed more food that could only be given through agriculture. The people migrated to find more land.
The Bantu-speaking people moved southward rather than the North because the northern area was too densely populated.
African culture Conversion
The BaMbuti and San people of Africa either had to get along with the Bantu-speaking people or fight them for territory.
The BaMbuti and San people were less advanced and fought wars with stone weapons. They were then driven to the corner of the Congo Basin.
The Bantu-speaking people exchanged ideas and intermarried with the people they didn't drive out. They shared ideas about social and political organization and their language unified continent.
The people brought new techniques of agriculture to the lands they occupied and created new cultures with unique customs and traditions.
Iron-working, weapons from copper, bronze and iron.
The Kingdom of Aksum ch.8
Aksum had access to the Red Sea, Blue Nile and White Nile which allowed trading settlements to be built and export things like silk, textiles, and spices.
Aksum had international trading power with mediterranean countries, Persia and Indian Ocean trading regions.
Aksum's port city of Adulis included people from their trading partners which included Egypt, Arabia, Greece, Rome, Persia, India and Byzantium.
Aksumites adapted to their rugged, hilly environment by developing Terrace farming. A technique that increases land productivity by carving step-like ridges on the side of the mountain.
Aksum's Decline in Power.
Islamic invaders seized destroyed Adulis and spread the religion of Islam.
Aksum was cut off from the major ports along the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.
Aksum became isolated from other Christian settlements and it's environment became endangered.
Aksum moves it's capital to the mountains, which is now present-day Ethiopia. This lead to its depletion of forests, soil erosion and its overall decline as a power.
Origins of Aksum
The son of King solomon (of ancient Israel) and the Queen of Sheba (a country in Southern Arabia) formed a royal dynasty of Aksum and Ethiopia that lasted into the 20th century.
The first mention of Aksum was in a guidebook in 100 AD which describes Zoskales, the first king of Aksum.
Zoskales was in power when Aksum seized areas along the Red Sea and Blue Nile in Africa.
Ezana was an exceptionally strong leader during 325 and 360. He was determined to expand and establish his authority.
The kingdom reached new heights.
Ezana first conquered part of the Arabian peninsula and in 350 he conquered the Kushites and burned the Meroe down.
India's first Empires
321 B.C Chandragupta Maurya claims the throne and the Mauryan dynasty begins
301 BC Chandragupta's son gets the throne
269 BC Asoka becomes king of the Mauryan Empire
Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture ch.7
Silk Roads make trading easier to access across china and Rome. sea trade was also made easier.
indian trade made it easier to lend money to merchants and affected indian culture