political situation in China after the civil war 1949-1952 (How was the…
political situation in China after the civil war 1949-1952
How was the country ruled?
Three critical transitions
1) from economic prostration to economic growth
2)from political disintegration to political strength
3)from military rule to civilian rule
Agrarian Reform Law of 1950
the property of rural landlords was confiscated and redistributed
Programs were begun to increase production and to lay the basis for long-term socialization.
Acts like the marriage law (May 1950), trade-union law (June 1950) symbolized the break with the old society, while mass organizations and the regime’s “campaign style” dramatized the new.
policy toward the cities focused on restoring order, rehabilitating the economy, and getting rid of inflation in the urban economy
The CCP tried to discipline the labour force, win over the confidence of the capitalists, and implement drastic fiscal policies to undercut inflation. These policies brought great successes.
By late 1950 many urban Chinese viewed the CCP leadership as needed reformers.
Thought-reform campaign was launched to reform the thinking of Chinese citizens into accepting Marxism and Maoism
The Five-Antis campaign targeted the
, brought them into line on charges of bribery, tax evasion, theft of state property and economic information, and cheating on government contracts.
The Three-Antis campaign targeted
who had become too close to China’s capitalists.
what happened to the supporters of the GMD
Directed against remaining GMD-spies and those who had committed crimes.
Between Jan and Oct 1950, almost 4000 people arrested
Those who were found guilty faced life imprisonment or execution, although there were many cases where those accused were released, served only short sentences or sent to labour camp
Up to 80% of the population involved in this mass movement
Schools, factories, government offices and neighbourhood organisations formed committees to root out anti communists
How can the political situation in China in the immediate years after the end of the war be described?
Most of China's old state bureaucracy had been destroyed
Good opportunity for CCP to secure the future of their revolution
CCP faced only scattered counter-revolutionaries as the main fight had been won during the revolutionary years
CCP had quite a lot of popular support, especially from the peasants who were a majority of the population
CCP surprised by sudden GMD collapse
No proper constitution until 1954 (5 years later)
What was China's standing on the international stage?
USA and UN not recognising PRC
Jiang's GMD government in Taiwan had US support
USA used its veto in UN Security Council to block recognition of the PRC
Jiang promised to invade mainland China and re-establish his rule, which was a scary prospect for the CCP, because of USA's might
Iffy relationship with the Soviet Union
Stalin was scared of USA withdrawing its support of a Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe
==> Stalin opposed to CCP taking power and was instead recommending a coalition government with the GMD
Stalin saw PRC as a possible ally in the Cold War and therefore decided to materially support them
The Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance in 1950