Large tub of boiling hot oil “exploded” all over shirtless patient. (Burns…
Large tub of boiling hot oil “exploded” all over shirtless patient.
Painful blisters covering both arms (shoulders to fingers)
His forehead is red and tender
Chest and abdomen are pale gray-white in color.
Skin grafting may be necessary
Tissue damage caused by heat, electricity, radiation, or certain chemicals
Damage caused by denaturation of proteins, which destroys cells
Immediate threat is dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
Leads to renal shutdown and circulatory shock
Can lead to infection
Death without treatment is possible
Severe scaring will be present
Debridement (removal) of burned skin
First Degree Burn
Epidermal damage only
(Superficial) Least serious type of burn because they injure the top layers of skin.
Localized redness, edema (swelling), and pain.
Third Degree Burn
Entire thickness of skin involved
Leaving the skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch
Underlying bones, muscles and tendons may also be damaged.
Skin grafting is commonly required to aid in recovery
No edema is seen and area is not painful because nerve endings are destroyed
Second Degree Burn
Epidermal and upper dermal damage
Deep burn that damages the epidermis and part of the dermis.
Fluid filled blisters form. little to no scarring
Critical Burn: requires immediate medical attention. (Potentially life threatening, disfiguring, and/or disabling)
Rule of Nines
Allows for gross approximation of the percentage of the body affected by a burn
How to Use:
Head and neck = 9%
Anterior trunk = 18%
Posterior trunk = 18%
Bilateral anterior arm, forearm, and hand = 9%
Bilateral posterior arm, forearm, and hand = 9%
Used to estimate volume of fluid loss
consists mostly of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Consists of epithelial tissue and is avascular
The 5 Layers
Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin)
Consists of: collagen, elastic fibers, arteries, veins, nerves, sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles
Dense irregular connective tissue, vascular. Small area of areolar immediately under epidermis.
Superficial layer of areolar connective tissue
Consists of dense irregular connective tissue
Collagen and elastin fibers
First line of defense protects from disease and most infections.
Storage for fatty tissues necessary for energy, provides vitamin d, & sensory input
Protection, temperature regulation, sensory reception, biochemical synthesis, and absorption