12 yr old right arm fracture (long bone (epiphysis (outer; compact bone…
12 yr old right arm fracture
very low calcium diet.
landing directly on arm with all body weight
right elbow broken and upper arm wounded from protruding bone
lactose intolerant; diet consists of meat and junk, no dairy products.
possibly a supracondylar fracture in right elbow and distal fracture in the shaft of the right humerus with fragments of bone in the wound.
surgery is needed for treatment in order to remove all bone fragments and for after care a sling and a diet change with increased vitamin D supplements.
irregular bone growth
risk of infection
located between the epiphysis and diaphysis
role is to remain as cartilage during adolescence to promote growth until maturity when the plate narrows into a line sealed by bone.(growth plate)
tough sheath covers outer surface except articular cartilage and is anchored to the bone by perforating fibers.
inner; cellular layer includes osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
outer; fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue protects bone, anchors blood vessels and nerves to the bones surfaces and serves as an attachment site for ligaments and tendons.
incomplete layer of cells covering all internal surfaces of bone within the medullary cavity. also contains osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts.
region containing the epiphyseal plate.
outer; compact bone inner; spongy bone
proximal and distal
joint surface covered by the articular cartilage
medullary cavity is hollow space within diaphysis. contains red marrow in children and yellow marrow in adults.
long bone shaft inner layer consists of spongy bone and outer compact.
classifications of bone fractures
avulsion, colles, comminuted, complete, compound, compression, depressed, displaced, epiphyseal, greenstick, hairline, impacted, incomplete, linear, oblique, pathologic, pott, simple, spiral, stress, and transverse
ossification; the formation and development of bone connective tissue.
interstitial; epiphyseal plate and appositional; periosteum.
intramembranous; develop from mesenchymal conn. tiss.
and endochondral; replace hyaline
dynamic process of bone deposition and resorption.
influence of hormones on bone growth
blood calcium levels regulations