Chapter 1- Electricity (Materials can become electrically charged…
Chapter 1- Electricity
Materials can become electrically charged
Electric charge is a property of matter
Electric charge- allows an object to exert an electric force on another another object without touching it
Space around a particle which an electric charge exerts its force- electric field
Static charges are caused by the movement of electrons
Static charge- buildup of electric charge in an object caused by the presence of many objects with the same charge.
More protons than electrons- positive charge. More electrons than protrons- negative charge.
Charging by Contact
When two uncharged objects touch eachother, electrons move away from eachother- charging by contact.
Van De Graaff generator- device that builds up static charge through contact
How Materials Affect Static Changing
Changing by contact- materials electrons are attacted to another material more than they are attached to their own.
Changing by Induction
The buildup of a charge without direct contact
Induction can produce a temporary static change.
Induction can build a charge by changing the position of electrons, even when electrons do not move between atoms.
Technology uses static electricity
Static electricity- used in making cars & technology
Charges can move from one place to another
Static charges have potential energy
Static charge can move to a new location- static discharge
A charge moving transfers energy that can be used to work
Electric Potential Energy
Electric potential energy is the energy a charged particle has due to its position in an electric field
Electric Potential- amount of potential energy per unit change at a certain position in an electric field
A potential of one volt is equal to one joule of energy per coulomb of charge
Charge Seperation- Particles of moisture inside a cloud collide with the air and with eachother, causing the particles to become electrically charged.
Charge Buildup- the negatively charged particles at the bottom of the cloud repel electrons in the ground
Static Discharge- When the electric potential or voltage create by the difference in charges is large enough, the negative charge moves from the cloud to the ground
Materials affect charge movement
An electric charge cannot move easilty through air, but can through metal
Conductors and Insulators
A material that allows an electric charge to pass through it easily- conductor
Insulator- material that does not easily allow a charge to pass through