Ancient Rome (JULIUS CAESAR (Julius’s father, Gaius Julius Caesar, was a…
Julius’s father, Gaius Julius Caesar, was a quaestor and governor. His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from a politically influential family.
He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He was also responsible for social and governmental reforms.
On Sulla’s death in 78 BCE. Julius returned to Rome to build his political career. He gained popularity and powerful positions by public speaking and also by bribing the right people.
Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family in 100 BCE. He was a gifted Roman general and politician.
Julius became the head of his family at 16, on his father’s sudden death. Though he was still young, Julius already knew that in order to succeed in Roman politics he needed to increase his personal wealth.
In 84 BCE, at the age of 18 Julius married Cornelia Cinilla, who came from a distinguished family. Unfortunately, Caesar and his family were considered to be enemies of Sulla so Julius was forced to leave Rome to avoid being killed.
The Senate in Rome led by Pompey. Pompey did not supported Caesar. He had begun to worry about Caesar’s rising popularity. so In 49 BCE, Caesar was ordered by the Senate to give up his command but he refused. Instead, he returned to Rome with an army to confront his enemies there. So Pompey fled to Egypt, but Caesar and his men followed him there and killed him.
On 15 March in 44 BCE, a group of about 60 senators, which included some of his friends and former allies stabbed Caesar 23 times when he entered the Senate House killing him. Caesar’s death led to civil war in Rome that lasted for about 15 years.
Trax- attackers, full helmet, protected arm, thighs and leg greaves, knees and shins, very big human.
Murmillo- very strong and tough, big helmet, very heavy armour, very big shield, defend, one greave.
Retiarius- light equipment, left arm protect, line clothing.
Secto- very heavy helmet, inside lining of leather, metal protector.
Hoplomachus- shield and weapon, right arm and leg protected by greave, light shield,
Scissor- no shield, strong attacker, right arm protected by greave.
Provocator- helmet changed, light armour, attacker, no chest protection, sleeve on right arm.
Dimacherus- attacker, two swords, no shield, wrapping around shins.
7 CONCEPTS OF HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDING
Cause and effect
Continuity and change
Women in Rome
Women in Rome were technically considered citizens. They had few rights when compared to men.
The main role of women in Roman society was to raise children and run the household.
A household in ancient Rome included parents who were married and unmarried children, and slaves.
The fathers of the family decided who his daughters get married to.
Women had to obey their husbands in nearly every aspect of their lives. Any property or money they brought to the marriage automatically belonged to their husbands.
In the 2nd century BCE, marriage for women changed giving women more financial advantages and social freedom With their husbands., many women attended dinner parties, gladiator fights, chariot races and religious festivals, and regularly went to the public baths.
swimming pool for exercise
shops for selling food and snacks
library and reading rooms
steamy hot pool
cloak room where people leave their stuff with slaves
Things you could do at the Roman baths
Meet with friends
Eat and relax
Wealthy Romans had nicer houses than poorer Romans.
mainly poorer Romans had to walk to public bathrooms and the baths.
the poorer had to walk long ways to just get food and water.
All Romans that didn't have bathrooms in their houses had to use the public bathrooms where they had to use sponges to wipe then had to wash them for the next person.
Most Romans went to the baths for most of their day instead of staying home all day with some of the wife's.
Roman religious beliefs and practices
The values, customs and beliefs of ancient Romans were often inherited from their ancestors.
These beliefs, values and practices had an impact on how Romans lived.
The rulers of ancient Rome did not believe in one god. Instead they believed in many gods.Which they got from the Greeks.
Roman deities were worshipped in temples and in homes. Rituals and ceremonies were the most important part of Roman religious practice. For example, certain parts of sacrificed animals were burned as an offering to the gods.
Ancient Rome society was organised into families. The family was controlled by the paterfamilias ( the oldest male in the house).
The ancient Romans had great respect for the father figure. The Emperors and Senators were seen as the fathers of the people of Rome.
The role of men in Roman society was the religious belief that women, children and slaves did not have souls.
The women of Rome were expected to be good wife's and mothers.
Education was a privilege of the wealthy, and usually only for boys. Girls did learn to read and write, but most of their training related to skills such as spinning cloth and weaving.
Subjects studied typically included music, history, geography, astronomy, mathematics, reading, writing, along with Greek and Latin. They were also taught the Roman values.
Boys generally completed their schooling around the age of 16. Their ‘graduation’ was celebrated by putting on a new toga.
God of war
God of love and beauty
God of the sea
King of Gods
Goddess of hearth
Goddess of women and childbirth
First was Monarchy then became a republic than empire.
Monarchy- Ruled by kings, system of government.
Republic- Person rules by voting
Empire- Ruled by an Emperor
Key groups in Roman society
The social hierarchy of ancient Rome was guided by a set of rules and customs.
Only certain people in society could be citizens. A boy was born a citizen if his father was a citizen and his parents were legally married. Roman citizens were divided into classes based on birth. This determined their role in society. Citizens were made up of two groups – patricians and plebeians.
Patricians- Patrician families were wealthy and typically owned huge estates. For a long time they held all the positions of political importance.
Plebeians- Plebeians were the ordinary citizens of ancient Rome. They made up the bulk of the population. They also included those who were involved in commerce and trade. They had some say in how they were ruled.Wealthier plebeians were often responsible for government. They were also artisans and rich landowners. The poorest of the plebeians owned no property at all.
Foreigners- were born outside the city of Rome had some rights, but they were not considered full citizens until the law changed in 212 CE to allow the to become citizens.
Non-citizens were people who could not vote and had very few rights.
Slaves- in ancient Rome were also non-citizens and had no rights at all. Most slaves were prisoners of war, though some were bought as ‘goods’. Slaves had no choice in what they did. Slaves provided a vital source of labour.
The colloseum also known as Flavian Amphitheatre, was used for entertainment.