Social Behaviour (Social Standards of Behaviour (Social Roles (Socially…
Social Standards of Behaviour
Socially defined patterns of behavior that are expected of persons in a given setting or group
interests, abilities, and goals
imposed on you by the group or by cultural, economic, or biological conditions beyond your control.
influences your social role e.g. as a student
many “unwritten rules” for the ways that all members should, or ought, to act.
dictate socially appropriate attitudes and behaviors in particular behavioral settings.
Norms can even guide conversation, as when they restrict discussion of sensitive or taboo subjects in the presence of certain company
Learning and Adjusting to Social Norms
1.Noticing the uniformities and regularities in certain behaviors,
observing the negative consequences when someone violates a social norm.
enables us to make predictions about what to expect in various settings
A script involves a person’s knowledge about the sequence of events and behavioral actions that is expected of a particular social role in a given setting
Factors that affect Conformity
Definition: A form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual judgments of unambiguous stimuli
Definition: The tendency for people to adopt the behaviours, attitudes, and opinions of other members of a group.
Definition: The tendency to mimic other people, named after the animal that changes its skin colour to fit into its varied environment.
Constructing Social Reality: What influences our judgments of others?
Theory of interpersonal attraction
Reward theory of attraction
Definition: A social learning view that predicts we like best those who give us maximum rewards at minimum cost.
Exceptions to the Reward Theory of Attraction
Matching Hypothesis: The prediction most people will find friends and mates that re perceived to be of about their same level of attractiveness.
Expectancy-value theory: States how people decide whether to pursue a relationship by weighing against their expectations of success in establishing the relationship.
1) self-worth (what people think of themselves
2) social desirability (popularity).
Cognitive dissonance theory
Definition: A highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognitions, especially when their voluntary actions conflicts with their attitudes or values.
Keys to Loving Relationships
Making Cognitive Attributions
Fundamental Attribution Error(FAE)
Definition:the dual tendency to overemphasize personal traits (the rush to the dispositional) while minimizing situational influences.
trying first to find a situational explanation for strange or unusual behavior of others before blaming them with dispositional explanations.
Definition: An attributional pattern in which one takes credit for success but denies responsibility for failure.
Universal dimensions of social Cognition: Warmth and Competence
Cross-Cultural Research on the Need for Positive Self-Regard
Prejudice and Discrimination
Definition: A negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group or category, often without any direct evidence.
Prejudice may be expressed as negative emotions (such as dislike or fear), negative attributions or stereotypes that justify the attitude, and/or attempts to avoid, control, dominate, or eliminate those in the target group.
exerts a powerful force for selectively processing, organizing, and remembering pertinent information about particular people
most nations harbor prejudices of varying kinds, some conscious and some nonconscious
the systematic extermination of a group of people because of their racial or ethnic origins.
Definition:The psychological process of thinking about certain other people or groups as less than human, as like feared or hated animals. A basic process in much prejudice and mass violence.
This cognitive bias is a tendency to search out information or interpret available information in ways that confirm one’s preconceptions
Definition: the negative effect on performance that arises when an individual becomes aware that members of his or her group are expected to perform poorly in that domain.
Implicit Racial Bias Influences Criminal Sentencing
How Do Systems Create Situations That Influence Behavior?
Definition: Differs from social norms that come from within groups because it operates via institutionalised (and thus legitimized) systems in a top-down fashion to exercise control over groups and individuals.
involves authorization or institutionalized permission to behave in prescribed ways or to forbid and punish actions that are disapproved.