Beneficial Washback (Results (Intrinsic motivation, Autonomy, Self…
Interlanguage and strategic investments
How students prepare?
Cram courses / Teaching to the test
Acceptable score >>>> language development
Comments >>>>>> simple letter grade
Generously and specifically
Comparing to others (Competitive learning)
Informal performance assessment
Washback during learning process
End v.s. Beginning
Strengths / Weaknesses
Praise / Strategic hints
Sense of accomplishment and challenge
What and How?