Criminal Investigative Analysis (How does it work? (Criminal profiling…
Criminal Investigative Analysis
How does it work?
Criminal profiling dates back as far as the 1880s
In 1974, the FBI formed its
Behavioral Science Unit
to investigate serial rape and homicide cases.
Used crime scene clues to make predictions about British serial murderer Jack the Ripper's personality.
Criminal profiling works on the principle that each and every criminal - regardless of the level or severity of their crime - will work to a certain set of values. These values - or signatures - are as individual as your own handwritten signature and once identified can be used to help law enforcement make a positive identification. Profiling also takes in victimology.
victimology is the study of the victims in a number of crimes perpetrated by the same criminal. The idea of victimology is to identify similarities between each of the victims of a particular crime so that the profiler may be able to identify a definite pattern in the criminal's approach to his (or indeed her) crimes.
Victimology looks at age, lifestyle, similarities in hair colour and eye colour, whether the victims have met or worked together in the past, or if they share a common interest. All of this information can be used to help the profiler build up an accurate picture of the offender.
Predicting a Criminal's Next Move
Profiling is also used as a means of attempting to - and in most cases succeeding - to predict the next move of a criminal who may be on what is commonly referred to as a 'spree'.
Offenders who are engaged in crime sprees often devolve from a lucid state of mind into a pathological state of frenzied criminality which can often result in assault or even murder. A profiler will try - where possible with the evidence already in hand - to predict what the offender may attempt to do next and may also try to communicate with them via the media.
Behavior Reflects Personality
Four crime phases:
Antecedent: What fantasy or plan, or both, did the murderer have in place before the act? What triggered the murderer to act some days and not others?
Method and manner: What type of victim or victims did the murderer select? What was the method and manner of murder: shooting, stabbing, strangulation or something else?
Body disposal: Did the murder and body disposal take place all at one scene, or multiple scenes?
Postoffense behavior: Is the murderer trying to inject himself into the investigation by reacting to media reports or contacting investigators?
Much of this work comes from applied psychologist David Canter, PhD, who founded the field of investigative psychology in the early 1990s and now runs the Centre for Investigative Psychology at the University of Liverpool.
Richard Kocsis, PhD
Crime Action Profiling
CAP adopts the view that profiling essentially represents a psychological technique that has its foundations in the disciplinary knowledge of forensic psychology.
Kocsis says crime action profiling models are rooted in knowledge developed by forensic psychologists, psychiatrists and criminologists. Part of crime action profiling also involves examining the process and practice of profiling.