Eukaryotic Cell Structure (Cell Wall ( (), , , , , ), Ribosomes (Types…
Eukaryotic Cell Structure
contains the hereditary material & controls cell's activities
granular, jelly like material which fills nucleus.
made of protein bound linear DNA.
manufactures ribosomal RNA and assembles ribosomes.
allow large molecules like mRNA to pass out nucleus.
a double membrane that surrounds nucleus & is continuous with ER. Often has ribosomes on surface. Controls entry & exit of materials of nucleus & contains reactions taking place within it.
produce secretory enzymes
proteins and lipids produced by ER are passed through. Golgi modifies the proteins by adding non protein components like adding carbohydrate to proteins to form glycoproteins
proteins and lipids are labelled and sent to correct destinations by being transported in Golgi vesicles which come off ends of Golgi cisternae. Vesicles then move to cell surface to fuse with membrane and release contents to outside
similar to SER but more compact
consists of a stack of membranes that make up flattened sacs (cisternae) with small rounded hollow structures called vesicles.
Types (depends on which cell they are found in)
in prokaryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Is smaller.
in eukaryotic cells
have two subunits (large and small). Both contain ribosomal RNA and protein. They are small but plenty.
small, cytoplasmic granules where protein synthesis takes place.
release enzymes to outside of cell (exocytosis) to destroy material around cell.
digest worn out organelles so the useful chemicals they are made of can be re-used.
break down cells once dead (autolysis)
hydrolyse material ingested by phagocytic cells such as white blood cells and bacteria.
isolate enzymes from rest of cell and release them to outside or to a phagocytic vesicle.
formed when the vesicles produced by Golgi contain enzymes like proteases and lipids.
Plant Vacuole Functions
sugars and amino acids act as a temporary food store.
pigments colour petals to attract pollinating insects.
support plants by making cells turgid.
fluid filled sac bound by a membrane (tonoplast)
mineral salts, sugars, amino acids, wastes and pigments
Cytoskeleton & Centriole