The Quantum Theory of an Atom (Electron Configuration (Orbitals!! not…
The Quantum Theory of an Atom
Wave-particle duality of light
The electromagnetic spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all forms of electromagnetic radiation and the differences in the types of radiation being their frequencies and wave lengths
types of radiation
visible light (rainbow)
Hydrogen Light Emission
why do these happen?
The mathematical relationship between wavelength and frequency
C = λv so λ=c/v and v=c/λ
Characteristics of waves
wavelength: the shortest distance between two peaks on a continuous wave, measured in nanometers or meters
frequency: the number of waves that pass a given point per second, measured in hertz
amplitude: the waves height from the origin of the crest or from the origin of the trough
Crest: the highest point of the wave
Trough: the lowest point of a wave
Planck’s constant and the photoelectric effect
h = 6.626x 10^-34 j.s
A photon of light knocks an electron free from a sheet of metal, this in turn makes the metal positive.
negative light charges reflect each other
Ephoton = Eo +KE
I ACCIDENTALLY REMOVED A FORMULA, SORRY!
FORMULA THAT USES "h"?
from the German Aufbauprinzip, “to build” states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s subshell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied
in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy level before occupying higher levels
Heinsberg's Uncertainty Principle
the uncertainty principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties.
you cannot find the velocity and location of an electron at the same time
the more exact position of the electron is known, the less precisely the velocity can be known
Pauli's Exclusion Principle
is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers
every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
every orbital must have one electron before any other can have two
Orbitals!! not Orbits!
probability function around the nucleus
electrons that are further away have more energy, easier to "pluck" off and share with/give to other atoms
Circles (orbitals) represent boundaries where electrons can found be 90% of the time
Orbits are fixed rotations around an object. Orbitals are uncertain areas around the nucleus of an atom that has the highest probability of finding an atom
show only the valence electrons of an element
Quantum Mechanical Model
Atomic Emission Spectra: a unique spectra of light that is emitted by an element when electricity runs through it or when it is viewed through a prism
emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
acts as the elements "fingerprint"
quantum: the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
The Quantum Mechanical Model is based more on probability rather than certainty
energy levels (n= principal quantum number)
p (peanut) it consists of the six families on the periodic table all the way to the right
d (double peanut) consists of the 10 families in between the s and the p
s ( O sphere) it consists of the first two families on the periodic tables (2 columns on the left)
f (flower) this is the bottom row that is underneath the d, s, and p