Quantum Theory of the Atom (The Quantum mechanical model (Atomic emission…
Quantum Theory of the Atom
Wave particle duality of light
Characteristics of Waves:
represented by the greek letter nu, is the number of waves that pass a given point per second ( 1 Hertz = waves per second)
the waves height from the origin to a crest/through
represented by the greek letter lambda, is the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave
wavelength is measured from crest to crest or from through to through
wavelength is usually expressed in m,cm,&nm (1nm = 1 x 1e-9m)
Planck’s constant and the photoelectric effect
h= 6.626 x 10^-34 m^2 kg/s
E = h( 6.626 X 10-34 J·s)v(frequency)
FORMULA FOR CALCULATIONS?
the transfer of energy from light to an electron
is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light hits a material. Electrons emitted in this manner can be called photoelectrons.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
White light (e.g. sunlight) passing through a prism separates into a continuous spectrum of colors which are the called the visible spectrum. The visible spectrum however, comprises of only a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The electromagnetic spectrum includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation, with the only differences in the types of radiation being their frequencies
The Mathematical Relationship between Wavelength and Frequency
Inversely related, as one quantity increases, the other decreases
c = λv, c = 3.00 x 10^8 m s
The Quantum mechanical model
uses complex shapes of orbitals based on probabilities of where a electron will be in an electron cloud
Atomic emission spectra
unique spectra of light emitted by an element
the amount of energy obsorbed by an e- ,it's the same as the amount released ,specific amount :quantum of energy
Bohr model -model electron around the nucleus ,moving around the orbitals energy is ability to do work and transmit heat and creat heat . WHAT DO YOU MEAN HERE?
orbital like sphere around nucleus . WHAT DO YOU MEAN WITH THIS?
the lowest allowable energy state of an atom.
The Aufbau Principle
electron fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to know simultaneously the exact position and momentum of a particle
Pauli’s Exclusion Principle
no two electrons can have the same four electronic quantum numbers
Every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electron is singly occupied orbitals have the same spin
n= principle Quantum number --indicates the relative size and energy of atomic orbital .each energy level call principle energy level
4 sublevel --s(2 ) . p(6 ) . d(10) .f (14)
The number of sublevel = principle Quantum number