Quantum theory of the atom (Wave particle duality of light…
Quantum theory of the atom
The Quantum mechanical model
The quantum mechanical model of the atom uses complex shapes of orbitals (sometimes called electron clouds), volumes of space in which there is likely to be an electron.
Unique spectra of light emitted by an element when electricity is run through it or when it is viewed through a prism.
Atomic emission spectra
The set of frequencies or the electromagnetic waves of an element
Emitted by atoms of the element
Unique to each element and can be used to identify an element or determine whether that element is part of an unknown compound
Wave particle duality of light
Characteristics of waves
measured in nm
measured in Hz
the height of a crest
the electromagnetic spectrum
can only see 400-700nm
The mathematical relationship between wavelength and frequency
electromagnetic wave radiation
1)Planck's constant and 2)the photoelectric effect
1)6.626 x 10^-34 J x S
2)electron, called photo electrons, are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency, shines on the surface.
The Aufbau Principle
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
States it is not possible to know position and momentum of a particle perfectly
Pauli's Exclusion Principle
For two electrons occupying the same orbitals, they need opposite spins.
Every orbital in a sublevel is singly occupied before any orbital is doubly occupied.
All of the electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin (to maximize total spin).
Probability functions as to where you might find an electron
Shells correspond to periods on the periodic table
The higher the energy level the weaker pull from the nucleus making the electron easier to remove