Chapter 1: Information processing 4A18 Joyce Valleramos 4A22 Safa Zaman
Chapter 1: Information processing
4A18 Joyce Valleramos
4A22 Safa Zaman
1.1 Input-Process-Output Cycle
Output: Computer shows processed result
Input: Enter data and commands into computer.
Process: CPU works according to commands
1.2 Stored Programs
Program: A sequence of commands
Why: Computer can do tasks automatically, repeatedly, accurately
Program stored in ROM (read-only memory)
1.3 Data and Information
Data: A collection of raw facts
Not organised and have no meaning
Must be processed by procedures
Information: Data that is organised and has context
Computer can convert different types of data into digital forms
Digital forms can be inputted into computer using input device.
Text data is transformed into binary codes when input into a computer. It is further processed/stored in the computer.
Image is converted into pixels which are represented by a string of binary codes
Audio files can be edited/stored/reproduced in computer
Video is a sequence of images representing a scene in motion
1.5 Information System
Information system: accepts data input and transforms it to output information.
For automating an existing manual process, improving an existing system and fixing problems.
e.g. School Libraries operate in manual mode
Helps students search for a book efficiently.
Data: a major component of the information system
After collecting data, it will be stored in the database
Payroll information: employees' names, salaries and grades.
Multimedia Information: digital images or videos
1.6 Information Processes
Information life cycle (transforming data into useful information
Data collection: collecting raw data
Organized into certain formats to further process
Organized data is stored in storage media to retrieve for processing later (e.g. database)
Analyze data (to be presented)
Transmission: Sending information from computer system to another using common protocol
1.7 Info tech and Info Age
Information spreads widely and rapidly
People can access information anywhere anytime