. Topic 9: Digital Divide & The Transformation of Work (Digital Divide…
. Topic 9: Digital Divide & The Transformation of Work
Digital Divide: describe disparity between those with access to internet technology & those who do not.
Have perceived gap either:
knowledge and ability to use that technology
Access to cybertechnology
Exists at 2 distinct levels:
(i) “global digital divide” between developed & developing nations.
ii) divide between groups within developed nations, based on factors such as income & education.
Digital Service in US
(ii) Telephone users still pay a universal connectivity fee on their telephone bills to support universal service.
(i) US Congress providing universal service to be affordable for all Americans
(i) Having a telephone has been a necessary in our daily life.
Digital Divide as Ethical Issue
Ethicists believe: divisions between those who do & do not have access to vital resources, raise questions of distributive justice
Distributive justice refers to “just distribution” of primary goods & resources in populations.
Moss argues people in developing countries who do not have access to cybertechnology unfairly disadvantaged:
(i) they have to knowledge;
ii) they are unable to participate fully in democratic decision making processes
iii) their prospects for economic growth are low
Ross's list of prima facie duties:
justice - duty to prevent/correct such mismatch
beneficence - duty to improve conditions of others in these respects
self-improvement - duty to improve one's own condition in these respects
nonmaleficence - duty not to injure others
gratitude - duty to repay others for past favors done for oneself
reparation - duty to make up for wrongful acts previously done to others
fidelity - duty to fulfill promises or agreements into which one has entered
Positive and Negative Rights of Digital Divide
-We can take actions based on rights and law
Transformation of Work
in Era of Cybertechnology
Job displacement can be measured in terms of net result of jobs gained & lost
Monahan (2005):blurring of boundaries previously held as stable & fixed …between local/global, public/private [and] nation/world.
Trade agreements made possible new global economy, encouraging greater competition between nations & greater efficiency for businesses
Cybertechnology has transformed nature of work, raising social & ethical issues involving:
Job displacement & automation
Globalization & outsourcing.
Place that people can find & share idea easily and freely, free speach
Factors of democracy and democratic ideals
Openness (open architecture)
access to information