Learning (1) Lasting change 2) Affects behaviour or mental processes),…
1) Lasting change 2) Affects behaviour or mental processes
Simple and complex forms of learning
the ability to learn how to not respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus.
focus on important stimuli while ignoring stimuli that need no attention
Habituation: Learning not to respond to stimulation
b) Mere exposure effect
general preference for familiar stimuli
Learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed
Example: Constantly exposed to someone will increase attraction towards someone
c) Classical conditioning (builds on basic, survival-oriented responses and extends them to new stimuli.)
Pavlov's Classical conditioning
1) Acquisition : the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR), neutral stimulus (NS) (which becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS)), and conditioned response (CR).
ideal time interval for stimulus to work
2) Extinction (Conditioned stimulus alone)
3) Spontaneous recovery and re-extinction (conditioned stimulus alone)
Generalisation and discrimination
Stimulus discrimination involves responding to one stimulus but not to stimuli that are similar
Example: only a high pitch tune; Low pitch tune, dog will be given food.
Stimulus generalization: involves giving a conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the CS
Example: striking any tuning fork sound; Dog will respond to any as CS.
Higher-order/ second-order conditioning
Conditioned fears; Conditioned food aversions; Biological predispositions; Evaluative conditioning
d) Operant conditioning( associate our actions with rewarding or punishing consequences, such as a reprimand from the boss)
Schedules of reinforcement
Contingencies of reinforcement
Premack principle: Less preferred activity followed by highly desired activity
Skinner's operant conditioning box
Thordike's Law of effect
Problems with punishment
e) Cognitive Learning (study of internal mental processes)
Köhler's Insight learning
Tohman's cognitive maps
Bandura's observational/social learning
new responses are acquires after watching others’ behaviour and the consequences of their behaviour
studies on media violence and, recently, applications dealing with social problems, such as the spread of AIDS.