Deaf Education (Special Education Legislation (IDEA and NCLB set the…
Special Education Legislation
IDEA and NCLB set the standard that regardless of school placement, all disabled children should be expected to perform as nondisabled children do
President Obama signed the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) on December 15, 2015. This new law replaces NCLB.
IEP: Individualized Education Plan
Regarding IDEA (2004), Part A of the law includes these major points: free and appropriate public education (FAPE), placement in the least restrictive environment (LRE), protecting the rights of children with disabilities and their parents, and ensuring that they get an education.
IEP's must be developed and updated every year, setting new goals for the student.
Part B of IDEA covers assistance for the education of all children with disabilities for children ages 3 to 21 years of age.
Part C protects infants and toddlers with disabilities from birth to age 3. An Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) is made for each family based on their strengths and needs. The IFSP team is made up of two early education interventionists along with the family.
Deaf mentors play an important role with these IFSP documents as they provide parents with important information about ASL and Deaf culture.
Part D covers the national support programs at the federal level.
Communication & Language Approaches
The bimodal bilingual approach focuses on the acquisition and use of a visual language and a spoken language, in order to support the child’s early acquisition through vision and also stimulates the child’s audition through the cochlear implant or hearing aid
The monolingual approaches
include using spoken language only.
The bilingual approach includes the ASL/English bilingual program. This approach uses ASL as the language of instruction and teaches English as a second language.
Overlapping between different methods exists
Communication methodologies that include spoken language and listening skills are often seen as appropriate for children with residual hearing.
Language deprivation not only causes delays in learning academic content, but also having weak language skills can affect thinking, social, and reading skills
Deaf children pick up Social ASL for conversation rapidly, but may take longer to learn Academic ASL.
Total communication can include ASL; thus, it can be considered a bilingual approach. However, it may also include manual codes of English along with fingerspelling, reading, writing, drama, gestures, and speech.
Babies are screened for hearing loss as early as a few hours after birth, and referrals are made to audiologists for further testing if the child does not pass the hospital screenings
Audiologists typically have the responsibility to tell parents about their child’s hearing loss.
When hearing parents discover that their child is deaf, this can evoke strong emotions and feelings.
Providing parents with communication and language options that include ASL and Deaf culture can open the Deaf child’s world into realizing his or her language learning potential as early as possible
there are support organizations where families can meet Deaf role models and mentors and receive sign language instruction.
Parents can also get advice on raising their deaf children by networking with other families through Internet chat rooms, camps, newsletters, and conferences.
Meeting Deaf adults in these organizations is important so that parents can learn how ASL and Deaf culture can support their child’s early language development and self-identity process
Manual vs Oral
Laurent Clerc, who was Deaf, helped to establish more than 30 schools for the deaf throughout the United States.
During that time, Deaf teachers understood how to use signing to bridge to English, and their efforts are the precursors to ASL/English bilingualism used in present-day programs in Deaf education.
teachers used signing, fingerspelling, speech, reading, and writing. These bilingual methods are part of Deaf education’s language teaching and language learning history.
Oral schools using only spoken language methodologies were also established in the United States by William Bolling and John Braidwood
Other oral schools, notably the Lexington School for the Deaf in New York City (founded in 1865) and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northhampton, Massachusetts (founded in 1867), have lasted to this day, with the Lexington School for the Deaf now incorporating ASL as well as spoken English for teaching purposes
The oral/manual controversy debates between Edward Miner Gallaudet (1837– 1917) (the son of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787– 1851) and an advocate for sign language) and Alexander Graham Bell (1847– 1922) (the inventor of the telephone, who also was a teacher of the deaf and a strong supporter of spoken language) occurred during the late 1800s. As a compromise, Edward Miner Gallaudet developed “the combined approach” that used both spoken language and signing
There is still much controversy between
manual and oral method