Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (Complications (GCS 9-12: Moderate, GCS 3-8:…
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Definition: Is known as an injury to the scalp, brain or skull. Deterioration and death are possible.
Coup-countercoup may occur when the brain has movement within the skull as a result of primary or secondary brain injury. Primary being the initial impact and secondary effecting the opposite side of the brain. Trauma can occur due to both of these.
Skull fracture may occur or be the cause of. It can be open or closed and symptoms vary on the laceration or location.
GCS 9-12: Moderate
GCS 3-8: Severe
GCS 13-15: Minor
Nursing management includes neurological assessment, GCS, vitals, oxygen administration, pain management, surgery and monitoring for changes.
Focal injury is localised to a area of the brain
Contusions, which is when the brain tissue experiences bruising in an area, either at the site or opposite of the site.
Lacerations which are caused by the brain tissue tearing due to skull fracture or injury.
Diffuse Injury, is not localised to a area of the brain
Diffuse axonal injury is widespread axonal damage due to the axon swelling in trauma,
Concussion is sudden, mechanical head injury due to brain or body impact. Effects consciousness and causes pain.
Epidural haematoma occurs when the dura and skull surface experience bleeding, often caused by the skull experiencing a tear in the vein or artery. This is rapid.
Intracerebral haematoma occurs when the blood tissue experiences bleeding, occurring due to the rupture of Intracerebral vessels. Development is specific.
Subdural haematoma occurs when the dura matter and arachnoid layer experience bleeding between them as a result of injury to brain tissue or vessels. Slow development.