Uterine leiomyomas is the most common benign neoplasia in women, one of the most frequent causes of infertility in reproductive years, and the leading cause for hysterectomy. The pathophysiology of uterine leiomyomas is uncertain. Therefore, therapeutic approaches have been primarily empirical. It is now well documented that growth factors control the functional and possibly the histological integrity of several tissues. Recently the presence of growth substances in uterine tissues suggested that the role of sex steroid hormones in the pathophysiology of leiomyomas may be mediated by substances influencing the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. This report summarizes the data related to the pathophysiology of leiomyomas, which indicate a possible role of growth factors in uterine leiomyomas.Key words: leiomyomas, growth factors, uterus, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts.