Anatomy and physiology of female reproductive system (fallopian tube…
Anatomy and physiology of female reproductive system
The uterus is an organ of the female reproductive system. It’s shaped like an upside-down pear and has thick walls.
The uterus’s main function is to house and nourish a fetus until it’s ready for birth.
anatomy and physiology
The fundus is the upper part of the uterus. It’s broad and curved.
The fallopian tubes attach to the uterus just below the fundus.
The corpus is the main body of the uterus. It’s very muscular and can stretch to accommodate a developing fetus.
During labor, the muscular walls of the corpus contract to help push the baby through the cervix and vagina.
he corpus is lined by a mucus membrane called the endometrium.
This membrane responds to reproductive hormones by changing its thickness during each menstrual cycle.
If an egg is fertilized, it attaches to the endometrium. If no fertilization occurs, the endometrium sheds its outer layer of cells, which are released during menstruation.
The portion of the uterus between the corpus and the cervix is called the isthmus.
This is where the walls of the uterus begin to narrow toward the cervix.
The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus. It’s lined with a smooth mucous membrane and connects the uterus to the vagina
Glands in the cervical lining usually produce a thick mucus. However, during ovulation, this becomes thinner to allow sperm to easily pass into the uterus.
During childbirth, the cervix dilates (widens) to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal.
the pathway down which the ripe ovum travel om it way to the uterus or womb.
anatomy and physiology
also called oviduct or uterine tube, either of a pair of long, narrow ducts located in the human female abdominal cavity that transport male sperm cells to the egg
provide a suitable environment for fertilization
and transport the egg from the ovary, where it is produced, to the central channel (lumen) of the uterus.
Each fallopian tube is 10–13 cm (4–5 inches) long and 0.5–1.2 cm (0.2–0.6 inch) in diameter
The channel of the tube is lined with a layer of mucous membrane that has many folds and papillae—small cone-shaped projections of tissue.
Over the mucous membrane are three layers of muscle tissue; the innermost layer has spirally arranged fibres
the middle layer has circular fibres, and the outermost sheath has longitudinal fibres that end in many fingerlike branches (fimbriae) near the ovaries, forming a funnel-shaped depository called the infundibulum.
catches and channels the released eggs; it is the wide distal (outermost) portion of each fallopian tube.
The endings of the fimbriae extend over the ovary;
they contract close to the ovary’s surface during ovulation in order to guide the free egg.
Leading from the infundibulum is the long central portion of the fallopian tube called the ampulla.
small region, only about 2 cm (0.8 inch) long, that connects the ampulla and infundibulum to the uterus.
the cilia help to move the egg and sperm through the fallopian tubes.
The swaying motions of the cilia and the rhythmic muscular contractions of the fallopian tube’s wall work together while moving the egg or sperm.
The ovaries are the female pelvic reproductive organs that house the ova and are also responsible for the production of sex hormones.
anatomy and physiology
They are paired organs located on either side of the uterus within the broad ligament below the uterine (fallopian) tubes.
The ovary is within the ovarian fossa, a space that is bound by the external iliac vessels, obliterated umbilical artery, and the ureter.
The ovaries are responsible for housing and releasing ova, or eggs, necessary for reproduction.
At birth, a female has approximately 1-2 million eggs,
but only 300 of these eggs will ever become mature and be released for the purpose of fertilization.
Producing the female gametes oocytes via Gametogenesis.
Producing the reproductive hormones Oestrogens and Progesterone, an endocrine function.
is a muscular canal (approximately 10 cm long) that serves as the entrance to the reproductive tract
It also serves as the exit from the uterus during menses and childbirth.
the middle and inner layers allow the expansion of the vagina to accommodate intercourse and childbirth.
The Bartholin’s glands and the lesser vestibular glands secrete mucus, which keeps the vestibular area moist.
The vagina is home to a normal population of microorganisms that help to protect against infection by pathogenic bacteria, yeast, or other organisms that can enter the vagina.
The outer walls of the anterior and posterior vagina are formed into longitudinal columns, or ridges, and the superior portion of the vagina—called the fornix—meets the protruding uterine cervix.
The walls of the vagina are lined with an outer, fibrous adventitia; a middle layer of smooth muscle; and an inner mucous membrane with transverse folds called rugae.
The thin, perforated hymen can partially surround the opening to the vaginal orifice.
Lactic acid, in combination with other vaginal secretions, makes the vagina a self-cleansing organ.
is the external genitalia of the female reproductive tract, situated immediately external to the genital orifice.
The vulva consists of the following organs: mons pubis, labia minora and majora, hymen, clitoris, vestibule, urethra, Skene glands, greater vestibular (Bartholin) glands, and vestibular bulbs.
The boundaries include the mons pubis anteriorly, the rectum posteriorly, and the genitocrural folds (thigh folds) laterally.
The mons pubis is the rounded portion of the vulva where sexual hair development occurs at the time of puberty.
The labia majora are 2 large, longitudinal folds of adipose and fibrous tissue.
They vary in size and distribution from female to female, and the size is dependent upon adipose content.
The hymen is a thin membrane found at the entrance to the vaginal orifice.
The clitoris is an erectile structure found beneath the anterior joining of the labia minora.
Between the clitoris and the vaginal introitus (opening) is a triangular area known as the vestibule, which extends to the posterior fourchette
the labia minora serve to protect the female urethra and the entrance to the female reproductive tract.
clitoris important in sexual sensation and orgasm.
hymen is a thin membrane that sometimes partially covers the entrance to the vagina.
They produce mucus and participate in lubrication during sexual intercourse. Skene’s glands are a pair of paraurethral glands.
is a dome-shaped muscular sheet separating the pelvic cavity above from the perineal region below.
The pelvic floor is comprised of number of muscles and they are organized into superficial and deep muscle layers.
The deep pelvic floor muscles consist of pubococcygeus, ileococcygeuys, coccygeus and puborectalis muscles.
puborectalis muscle is located in between the superficial and deep muscle layers, and it is better to view this as the middle muscle layer of the pelvic floor
circular and longitudinal smooth muscles from the rectum into the anal canal constitutes the internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter of the anal canal respectively.
Circular muscle layer of the rectum expands caudally into the anal canal and become the internal anal sphincter
puborectalis muscle provides the constrictor function to the anal canal, vagina, and urethra.
pelvic floor muscles physical support to the pelvic viscera
constrictor mechanism to the anal canal, vagina, and urethra.
puborectalis muscle serves as a constrictor for the urethra as well.