sustainable development (a bird’s eye view) ( provides arguments to…
(a bird’s eye view)
provides arguments to combat common
misconceptions (sustainability )
sustainable agriculture”, “sustainable education”, “sustainable forestry”, “sustainable fisheries”, “sustainable business
sustainability & sustainable development
“ameliorating” economic growth
*process” to achieve
challenging” economic growth
*stands for the “goal”
1950s and 1960s ，growth and increased economic output.
early 1970s, the large and increasing poverty in the developing countries, together with the failure to share the benefits of economic growth with these countries led to increased efforts for more equitable welfare distribution.
1980s, environmental protection became the third major objective（purpose） of development
4.critique of technology
5.no- growth/slow growth
Whereas Quental et al.
limits, means and ends, needs, and complexity
Jabareen  identifies
ethical paradox, equity, global agenda, eco-form, utopia, integrative management, and natural capital stock.
In this sense, sustainable development not only represents a solution for environmental and societal problems, but offers a set of principles implying positive objectives, a focus for positive change, and a critique on conventional thinking and practice 从这个意义上说，可持续发展不仅代表了对环境和社会问题的解决方案，而且提供了一套原则，包括积极的目标、积极变革的重点和对传统思维和实践的批判。
the normativity principle
the equity principle
the integration principle
the dynamism principle
nominal definition** is by far the most quoted (and in many instances misquoted)
2 . starting point of most sustainability initiatives around the globe
satisfaction of human needs and aspirations of all is the primary objective, with particular attention for the basic needs and aspirations for a decent quality of life for the vast amount of people living in extreme poverty
how poor ? data . in 印象笔记
based on these two concept, proposes eight critical and interrelated objectives
(1) reviving growth; (2) changing the quality of growth; (3) meeting essential needs for jobs, food, energy, water, and sanitation; (4) ensuring a sustainable level of population; (5) conserving and enhancing the resource base; (6) reorienting technology and managing risk; (7) merging environment and economics in decision making; and (8) reorienting international economic relations
several governing aspects
available scholarly literature