5 steps involved in Error Analysis (description of error (addition,…
5 steps involved in Error Analysis
collection of a sample of learner language
massive sample: large sample consisting several samples of language use for comprehensive lists of errors
specific sample: one language sample from limited number of students.
incidental sample: one language sample by one single learner.
identification of error
compare learners' sentences with the normal or correct sentences in the teaching language
sometimes learners' sentences are not preferred ones.
sometimes it's difficult to reconstruct the sentences because we are not sure what learners really mean to say
description of error
addition, omission, substitution and ordering
phonology or orthography, lexicon, grammar and discourse
global error: prevent comprehension in some parts of message thus hinder communication.
local error: do not prevent understanding because there is only a minor violation
domain: the rank of linguistic unit (from phoneme to discourse) that must be taken as context in order for the error to become apparent.
extent: the rank of linguistic unit that would have to be deleted, replaced, supplied or reordered in order to repair sentences.
evaluation of error
involves a consideration of the effect that errors have on the person addressed, specifically the decisions on who the addresses will be, what errors they will be asked to judge them.
limitation of evaluation of errors in error analysis- criteria for seriousness, intelligibiity, or acceptability of an error.
explanation of errors or sources of errors
transfer- as discussed earlier, not all errors are due to first language interference
developmental error- errors that reflect learners' understanding of the second language system itself
overgeneralization- errors caused by trying to use a rule in a context where it does not belong such as regular verb and irregular verb.
simplification- errors where elements of a sentence are left out such as where all verbs have the same form regardless of person, number or tense.