Week 1 Reading (2) Engagement, Assessment, Intervention, Termination and…
Week 1 Reading (2) Engagement, Assessment, Intervention, Termination and Review
THE PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS: Model 1
To make connections and build relationships with clients and others in a meaningful way (engagement) with the intention of finding out what is going on (assessment) and then taking some form of action as a result (intervention).
When you or the client or community reach a conclusion, and as a result, take action, the process with the individual, group or community can be finalised (termination) and the practitioner can think about what they did and what they could have done differently/better (evaluation/review)
'The problem-solving process involves several phases that often emerge in spiral-like fashion'
- Making contact
- Exploring needs and setting goals
- Collecting info
- Prioritising issues
- Agreeing on action
- Implementing and modifying strategies to achieve goals.
- Reviewing what has happened
- Celebrating progress
- Concluding the work OR negotiating a continued relationship.
MODELS OF HELPING:
- The problem-solving process (Compton, Galaway and Cournoyer, 2005)
- The planned change process (Sheafor and Horejsi, 2015)
- The ongoing process of working with people (Levine 2013)
- The Integrated Framework (Maidment and Egan, 2016)
THE PLANNED CHANGE PROCESS: Model 2
Similar to the problem solving process, but it further emphasises the change process.Change process - A planned series or sequence of actions directed towards the achievement of a specific end."Change rarely proceeds in an orderly fashion, rather, it is more of a spiral, with frequent returns to prior phases for clarification or a reworking of various tasks and activities.'PHASES:
- Intake and engagement
- Data collection and assessment
- Planning and contracting
- Intervention and monitoring
- Final evaluation and termination
INTAKE AND ENGAGEMENT PHASE:
- Begin relationship
- Identify and define client's concern or problem
- Determine eligibility for service
DATA COLLECTION AND ASSESSMENT PHASE:
- Gather info and study problem or situation
- Decide what needs to change, what can be changed and how it can be changed.
PLANNING AND CONTRACTING:
- Formulate objectives
- Evaluate possible strategies
- Agree on an intervention plan
- Determine who shall do what and when it shall be done
INTERVENTION AND MONITORING:
- Carry out plan
- Monitor progress
- Revise plan if it is not achieving results
FINAL EVALUATION AND TERMINATION:
- Evaluate overall progress
- Bring relationship to an end
- Give feedback to agency about how services and programs might be improved.
THE ONGOING PROCESS OF WORKING WITH PEOPLE: Model 3
Practitioner activities are placed along a continuum, from engagement, to disengagement in a spiral.It emphasises cleint involvement at all stages of the process and incorporates elements of systems theory and an understanding of human development through the life cycle.STEPS:
- Assessing and defining the problem
- Setting goals
- Selecting alternative methods and an initial mode of intervention
- Establishing a contract
- Action leading towards the desired goal
- Evaluating and continuing working plan
- Abandoning unsuccessful intervention and selecting a different approach.
THE INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK: Model 4
A three-dimensional integrated framework built on the basis of anti-oppressive practice, that weaves together theoretical perspectives, skills and phases of helping, and the organisational context.
It is also based on cultural dominance
It focusses on:
- Workers challenges
- Structural, cultural and personal oppression in daily work with individuals, groups and families
THE HELPING PROCESS:
People who come to you for help - client self-referrals, involuntary attendance clients/respondents, prospects
Psychosocial assessment is often used un clinical practice, to highlight the combination of psychological and social factors affecting people's lives.Areas to find out more about a person's life history and current situation includes:
- Spiritual and religious
- Moral and ethical
- Work and occupation
Tools to aid assessment
- Family Genogram
Five intervention roles:
1. Social broker - worker provides info about services and resources and referral to other agencies
2. Facilitator - work brings others together for a common purpose
3. Teacher - work models a particular skill or technique or passes on info that may result in changed behaviour in a client.
4. Mediator - worker attempts to resolve the problem/dispute by providing opportunities for open discussion.
5. Advocate - Worker uses their professional knowledge to argue a case on behalf of a client or group, to secure a right or entitlement.
Reasons to end the relationship:
- They feel their needs have been met and the problem has been resolved.
- They now feel in control of the situation and no longer want your support to continue dealing with the problem.
- They choose to stop, whether or not progress has been made.
- If you feel unable to offer further assistance or if you decide that specialist input is needed.
The critical phase of reflective practice.
This is where professional supervision comes into play.