Although there were eight major Crusades, only the first was successful in bringing Jerusalem under Christian control. All remaining Crusades were either designed to protect the gains made during the First Crusade or motivated by a desire for wealth and fame. By the time of the Eighth Crusade in 1270, the Holy Land had not been regained by the Christians and many Crusaders had never returned home at all. Some were killed in battle for the Holy Land, while others died of disease or injuries. Others were sold as slaves, never to see their homes and families again. The Crusades did, however, have enormous effects on Europe and its people. Crusaders who returned home brought new wealth, new ideas, new customs and new products (such as foods, spices, perfumes, pearls and precious stones). The power and wealth of the Church increased greatly. Trade with the East also increased. Goods from the East poured into Europe through trading ports in Italy. With the growth in trade came the desire to explore and discover unknown lands.