Medieval History (Charlemagne (Charlemagne killed people that refused to…
Charlemagne killed people that refused to convert to Christianity .
Charlemagne killed the Saxon Chief.
Charlemagne's Empire weakened and split.
He was the king of the Franks.
Was the Emperor of the Roman's in the Middle Age.
Charlemagne's name means Charles the Great.
He had a great influence in many different ways.
He conquered many nations and expanded his influence in Western Europe.
Charlemagne's father's name was Pepin and he died in 768.
Charlemagne’s brother (Carlo man) took the throne of the Frankish kingdom with Charlemagne.
In 814 Charlemagne died.
In 476 the Western Roman Empire collapsed
He built new churches that faced towards Jerusalem.
In 791 Charlemagne defeated the Avars.
He hired great scholars such as Alcuin to work at Aachen.
He set up a famous school at Aachen and encouraged the spread of writing.
He set up schools and encouraged the clergy to study holy texts and ancient writers.
He spread Christianity to new areas.
Charlemagne protected Christian lands from attack by Muslim and Slav invaders.
The conquest of Saxony took over 30 years.
By 900 Western Europe was very poor.
Trade was localised.
Black Death/The Plague
The Black Death was first reported in China.
Another word for the plague is pandemic.
The Plague was spread by trade routes.
The bacteria of the plague was carried by rats.
Another name fo the Black Death was the Bubonic Plague.
The city of Messina is where the plague entered Italy.
The Black Death killed thousands of people including the peasants and the knights.
The Black Death is an infectious disease that killed everyone that got it.
The Black Death spread across North-Eastern China from 1330's to the 1350's.
35 million deaths were reported from China since the 1330's.
The Black Death is believed to be a combination of three different types of plague. The bubonic plague, the pneumonic and the septicemic.
Septicemic plague was the rarest and deadliest form of the Black Death.
The septicemic plague was spread by infected fleas.
The septicemic plague went directly into the bloodstream.
The first sign of the Black Death was large bulges or lumps that appeared on the skin, usually in the groin, in the armpits or on the neck.
The septicemic plague killed almost 100% of the victims
The Black Death lasted 51 years in Europe
Started in 1096 and finished in 1270.
During the 174 years there were 8 crusades.
The Crusades were between the Seljuk Turks (Muslims) and the Christians.
The Jews religion was referred to as Judaism or Jewish Faith.
The Asia Minor split in two
Greek Orthodox Church, the Greek church was on the East side.
Roman Catholic Church was run by Pope Urban 2 and the Roman church was on the west side.
In 1050 the Seljuk Turks took over Jerusalem.
The crusades helped weaken the Feudal system.
The Muslims began to kill and harass the visiting Christian pilgrims.
The Christians that participated believed that taking part in the crusades would be a sure way of gaining entry into heaven when they died.
In 1095 Pope Urban 2 called upon the Christians to fight the Seljuk Turks and reclaim Jerusalem
The Crusades were in Jerusalem.
The Christians, Jews and Muslims all went on pilgrimages to Jerusalem.
Constantinople's leader was Emperor Alexius 1
Emperor Alexius 1 was also the emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Feudalism was introduce across Western Europe between the 8th and 11th centuries.
Feudalism is a kind of social system based on rights and obigations relating to land ownerships.
Feudalism was a way of organising a society through a hierarchy.
A hierarchy is a system that classifies its members from top to bottom in rder of importance.
In a feudal society everyone from the king to the peasants had certain rights and responsiilities.
Relationships in the hierarchy were between lords and vassals.
Obligations were mutual. for example, a king had an obligation to the nobles directly below him, he provided them land to live on.in return each noble promised to obey the king and provide military support when needed.
In feudalism a person could almost never change their social position. So if a person was born as a peasant he or she died as a peasant.
Peasants could not become nobles no matter how hard they worked or how intelligent they were.
Crime and punishment
Begging for money
Selling bad food
Hand gets cut off.
Thrown in a pit full of water that is blessed by a priest. If you float you are guilty and will get executed and if you sink you are not guilty and will be buried on the good side of the church.
Get put in the stock for three days and three knights.
Fight and the winner gets to claimt he land.
Get put in jail for one year, every three months, get stood in pillory with a stone about your neck, and a notice with "false liar" written on your chest.
Six ounces of flesh from your chest will be fed to the hawk that you failed to report.
Fitted with a cage over your head, a metal rod will be placed in your mouth to hold your tongue down. then you will be placed backwards on a horse and led through town (only for women.)
Get taken around town for a day with rotten fish tied around your neck.
Sentenced to death, crowned with a ring of red hot iron, and your flesh will be torn ff with red hot pinchers.
The Normans, The Church and The Court enforced the law in Medieval times.
Forest land was the king's land and trespasses were prosecuted.
The night watchmen weren't very effective because they didnt get paid.
if you sank sanctuary you would be safe for forty days and forty nights.
Two methods of trial by ordeal
Trial by water
When the water in a river was blessed by a priest and the accused was thrown in and if they floated they were guilty and if they sank they would die.
Trial by hot iron
When you have to hold red hot iron for three paces.
Trial by combat was when you get someone to fight for you or you could fight for yourself.
The tithing system is a system of ten to twelve men that say they will not commit a crime and if one of them does those ten to twelve people would have to say who it was.
A murdrum fine was when a peasant was murdered and the murderer wasn't found within five days the whole village would have to pay.
The 7 Historical concepts
Evidence is the information gathered from historical sources
Primary sources are objects created or written at the time being investigated
Secondary sources are accounts about the past that were created after the time being investigated.
Empathy written in another way is the ability to "walk in someone elses shoes." we say "walk in someone elses shoes"because it means that you are aware of whats going on, and sensitive to their feelings, thoughts and experiences.
Empathising brings history to life. it connects us as human beings regardless of how much time has passed.
Cause and Effect
The concept cause and effect is used by historians to identify chains of events and developments,both in the short term and in the long term.
Significance relates to the importance assigned to aspects of the past. this includes people, events, developments, discoveries, movements and historical sites.
Continuity and Change
Continuity is something from the past that is still the same
Chang is things from the past that don't happen in a country or state anymore.
over time some things stay the same, whiole others change.
Historians refer to aspects of the past that have remained the same over time as continuities.
Contestability is how humans interprate different types of information/sources.
Perspective is a point of view, from the position that people see and understand events going on in the world around them.
The clothes for the poor were, by contrast, drab and dull in colour. They were crudely cut, and made from coarse cloth woven by peasant women from hand spun wool or linen.
Women typically wore long trailing garments with elaborate sleeves and ornate headgear.
Only noblewomen could wear veils and have dresses made from sating and velvet.
By the 11th century in Europe, there were huge differences between the clothes that were allowed to be worn by the rich and the poor.
Only people with rich blood were allowed to wear gold and silver material and purple silk.
The clothes worn by the wealthy were almost always custom-made by tailors.
Wealthy men wore stockings, tunics, decorated cloaks and fancy hats.
The poor's personal hygiene was very basic.
Peasants washed in a dish of cold water
Wood for the poor was a scarce and valuable resource, so it was not wasted on heating water for washing.
The rich could afford the luxury of a long hot bath.
Scented oils, rose petals or herbs such as rosemary and spearmint were added to the water for the rich.
Dried herbs and spices such as mint and cinnamon were also burnt to purify and sweeten the air while bathing.
Dental hygiene for the rich and the poor was almost non-existent.
People would occasionally clean their teeth but only by rubbing them with a piece of cloth.
Sometimes ash and mixtures of herbs were used to clean peoples teeth.
If you had a bad tooth it would get pulled out without and anaesthetic or pain medication.
There were no supermarkets, refrigerators or ovens in medieval times.
People killed their own animals and preserved meat by salting, smoking or pickling it.
Spices were used to disguise the taste of meat when it was old and rotten.
Vegetables were normally dried or pickled.
Grain was ground into flour to make bread
People used spoons, knives or their fingers to eat.
Instead of plates, most people ate off thick slices of trenchers (bread.)
Rich eating habits
The rich ate meat of both domestic animals and game animals.
Domestic animals are animals like cows, pigs and sheep.
Game animals are animals like deers, wild boars and pheasants.
The rich also ate fish, fruit, soft cheese, eggs, coloured jellies, vegetables, sauces and soups, salads, white bread, pies and tarts, and ornate sweet dishes.
The food was wached with either ale, wine or mead (a brew made from honey and water.)
Banquets were help on important religious feast days, and to mark events such as marriages, coronations, special birthdays, tournaments and the arrival of special guests.
Important people sat at a higher table then the other diners.
Feasts lasted for hours.
Between the many courses, diners were entertained by acrobats, minstrels, troubadours, storytellers, jugglers and jesters.
Poor eating habits
The poor ate simpler and less varied diet food than the rich.
The poor ate stews, grainy bread, vegetables and fruit (when available), milk, hard cheese, porridge made from oats or barley, and maybe some nuts from the forests.
The majority of the peasants ate their main meal for the day while they were working in the fields.
If peasants were lucky enough to live near rivers of the sea they got to eat fish.
But generally they ate very little meat, as they were often poor to own and raise animals.
Hunting for game animals (wild animals) in the lord's forests was forbidden.
The rich got to experience lavish banquets and the rich men got to experience activities such as hunting, falconry and playing chess.
Rich women might get to embroider, stitch tapestries or listen to musical performances.
Hunts were typically conducted in the woods and forests surrounding feudal manors.
Women riding side-saddle would sometimes be part of the hunting party.
Access to these areas was forbidden to the poor.
The poor hunted for rabibts and birds in the fields.
The poor did not have many opportunities for entertainment, but during special feasts, such as at harvest time, there might be dancing, dice throwing, ball games and wrestling.
Many of the games played by medieval children are still played today like hopscotch and hide and seek.
The Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings was between the English and the Normans (French.)
The English wore short garments.
Their hair was cropped.
Shaved their beards
Their arms were covered in gold bracelets
Their skinwas covered with punctured designs (tatoos.)
They drank till they got sick and threw up.
They fought with rashness and fury instead of military skill.
The Normans were use to war.
They were fierce.
They had horses.
They tricked and decieved their enemy.
The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres long and 50 centimetres tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings.