Biology C#2: Organisation of the Organism (Levels of Organisation (When…
Biology C#2: Organisation of the Organism
Cell Structure and Organisation
: thick liquid with particles in it.
: thin layer outside cell
: round structure that controls enzymes
: outside cell membrane; made of cellulose
: space inside cell filled with sap that is made of sugars, salts, pigments
: plastids(organelles) that contain chlorophyll/pigment
Both Plant and Animal
: organelles that build up protein of a cell
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
: network of flattened cavities; produce,transport and store proteins. (not present in prokaryotes)
: spherical, rod-like, elongated shapes; produce energy from food substances through aerobic respiration.
Cell with fast metabolism need lots of mitochondria to provide enough energy.
Mitochondria are present in plant and animal cells except prokaryotes
Size of Specimens
: Can Magnify up to x20
: two convex lenses(eyepiece lens + choice of objective lens) Magnify up to x1500.
: x10 means 10 times larger that real size. (if two lenses) EL: x10. OL: x40. Total magnification=x400.
Magnification=observed size/actual size
Levels of Organisation
When cells are finished dividing they become specialised. They do one particular job; they develop a specific shape; chemical changes take place in their cytoplasm.
: transport mineral ions from roots to leaves. Lignin makes walls thicker so the stem of the plant is very strong. Xylem vessels are made of xylem cells
: form lining of nose and mouth and have cilia(hairs) to move mucus down trachea.
Root Hair Cells
: hair-like projection out of cell penetrates soil and absorbs water and mineral salts
Palisade Mesophyll Cells
: found underneath upper epidermis of plant leaves. Long and columnar filled with chloroplasts to catch light energy. Make food via photosynthesis using carbon dioxide, water and light.
: Conducts electrical impulses along the fibre, to and from the brain and spinal cord. Chemical reactions cause impulses to travel along the fibre. Fibres are very long and connect distant parts of the body to the CNS(foot of spinal column)
Red Blood Cell
: disc-like cells contain a red pigment called haemoglobin. Transports oxygen around the body. No nucleus when mature.
: male reproductive cell. Front of cell oval-shaped with a tail. Acrosome(tip) secretes an enzyme that digests the egg cell membrane.
: female reproductive cell. Large and spherical. Cytoplasm contains yolk protein and fat drops. Nucleus contains genetic information
: made of many cell of the same type. All have similar structure and function. Perform a shared function. Work together. E.g.
Bone, Nerve, Muscle, Xylem are tissues
: consists of tissues grouped together to make a specific structure and perform a specific function. Work together. E.g.
Stomach, Heart, Lungs, Intestines are organs.
: Group of organs. Their functions are closely related. e.g.
Heart and Blood vessels make the Circulatory System. Brain, Spinal cord and Nerves make the Nervous System.