Lesson 12: Emotional and Cognitive Outcomes (Gospel (Wealth appears to be…
Lesson 12: Emotional and Cognitive Outcomes
Values: Qualities or beliefs that are viewed as desirable or important.
Values are affected by societal perception. Normality is based on societal norms at the time. The United States gives abnormal a label (i.e. bipolar) in order to ensure that the proper help is received.
Values are affected by personal perceptions. Age, experience, development, moral reasoning, etc. affect personal values.
Value clarification is a process of discovering what is worthwhile or desirable in personal life.
Attitude: Tendency to respond positively or negatively to people, objects, or situations. They contain beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies.
Attitude is developed in three different phases:
1: Awareness of culture differences. Beginning at about age 2 1/2 to 3.
Orientation toward specific culturally related words and concepts, beginning at about age 4.
Attitudes toward various cultural groups, beginning at about age 7.
Influences on attitude development:
Family has a large impact. Studies confirm that children identify with their parents' attitudes. Modeling is defined as when children pick someone they want to be like and model after their behavior.
Mass Media influences through television and movies.
Community influences through customs and traditions.
Studies have shown that schools influence gender stereotyping attitudes in children.
Locus of control related to ones responsibility for their success or failure
Internal locus of control is one's perception that one is responsible for one's own fate.
External locus of control: Perception that others or outside forces are responsible for one's fate.
Self efficacy is the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
Personal agency is the realization that one's actions cause outcomes.
Wealth appears to be related to happiness and well being, but when nations begin to make larger amounts of money the correlation disappears.
"Objective life circumstances have a negligible role
to play in a theory of happiness."
Age, gender, and income (as long as there is enough to provide for needs) rarely give clue to someone's happiness
Those active in religion are less likely to be delinquent