SHOCK (Four types of Shock (Cardiogenic Shock (Occurs when there is…
Four types of Shock
Occurs when there is physical damage or dysfunction of the heart which alters and decreases sufficient blood flow through out the body.
Example of what can cause a Cardiogenic shock includes damages to the heart, slow heart rhythm and irregular hear rhythm
Occurs when blood vessels become insufficient in supplying and distributing blood to the vital organs of the body.
Example of what can cause Distributive shock include Anaphylactic shock which is a severe allergic reaction. Septic shock is another example which occurs form sepsis when bacteria and toxin cause damage to the tissue and organs. Finally Neurogenic shock is when there is damage to the centre nervous system it is usually associated with the spinal cord.
Occurs when there is physical restriction or obstruction of blood flow. An example of a obstruction is a Pulmonary embolism which interrupts blood flow and overall cardiac output.
Example of causes of Obstructive shock include Pneumothorax, Cardiac tamponade and Hemothrax
Occurs when there is a decrease of intravascular fluid within the body
Example of what caused Hypovolaemic shock includes absolute hypovolaemia is haemorrhages, diarrhoea, vomiting diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Relative hypovolaemia is when the fluid distribution is not equal and can be caused by burns, bowel obstruction, fracture of long bones and sepsis
Stages of Shock
Progressive shock begins as a compensatory mechanism fail. The cardiovascular system is affected immensely in this stage of shock. Continued decreased cellular perfusion and resulting in altered capillary permeability
Signs and Symptoms - Altered mental status, decrease blood pressure, increased heart rate, acute respiratory distress, decrease urine output, jaundice, hyperthermia and cold and clammy
In the final stage of shock decreased perfusion from peripheral vasoconstriction. Lactic acid continue to increase capillary permeability and dilation. The patient has hypotension and hypoxaemia teh failure of the liver,lung and kidnerys as aresult of the accumaltion of the waste products
Signs and Symptoms - Unresponsive, pupils nonreactive, profound hypotension, decreased blood pressure, respiratory failure and hyperaemia, ischaemic gut, anuria, Hypothermia and mottled and cyanotic.
The body activates the neural, hormonal and biochemical compensatory mechanism to attempt to overcome the consequences of anaerobic metabolism to maintain homeostasis. The patient begins to reflect the imbalances of the oxygen supply and demand.
Signs and Symptoms - Decrease in blood pressure, increased heart rate, tachypnoea, hyperventilation, hyperactive bowel sounds and cool and clammy skin
Early detection of shock is a key part of treatment for shock.
Restoration of blood pressure through IV fluids, O2 therapy, medication, antibiotics. Monitor urine output, auscultate bowel sounds, monitor temperature. Also remembering comforting the patient and their family. All treatment is to all for the patient to be returned to homeostasis.
Craft, J., & Gordon, C. (2011). Alterations of cardiovascular function across the life span. In J. Craft, C. Gordon, & A. Tiziani (Ed.). Understanding pathophysiology (1st ed., pp. 606-692). Sydney, Australia: Elsevier.
Definition - Is the state that occurs due to the insufficient blood flow to the tissues within the body. As a result of decreased tissue perfusion, it impacts the overall issues resulting in an imbalance between the supply of and demand for oxygen and nutrients.