CN_U1- The OSI Model (The ISO-OSI model is a seven layer architecture. …
CN_U1- The OSI Model
The ISO-OSI model is a seven layer architecture.
Feature of OSI Model
Big picture of communication over network is understandable through this OSI model.
We see how hardware and software work together.
We can understand new technologies as they are developed.
Troubleshooting is easier by separate networks.
Can be used to compare basic functional relationships on different networks.
OSI Model Layer 1: The Physical Layer
Physical Layer is the lowest layer of the OSI Model.
It activates, maintains and deactivates the physical connection.
It is responsible for transmission and reception of the unstructured raw data over network.
Voltages and data rates needed for transmission is defined in the physical layer.
It converts the digital/analog bits into electrical signal or optical signals.
Data encoding is also done in this layer.
OSI Model Layer 2: Data Link Layer
Data link layer synchronizes the information which is to be transmitted over the physical layer.
The main function of this layer is to make sure data transfer is error free from one node to another, over the physical layer.
Transmitting and receiving data frames sequentially is managed by this layer.
This layer sends and expects acknowledgements for frames received and sent respectively. Resending of non-acknowledgement received frames is also handled by this layer.
This layer establishes a logical layer between two nodes and also manages the Frame traffic control over the network. It signals the transmitting node to stop, when the frame buffers are full.
OSI Model Layer 3: The Network Layer
Network Layer routes the signal through different channels from one node to other.
It acts as a network controller. It manages the Subnet traffic.
It decides by which route data should take.
It divides the outgoing messages into packets and assembles the incoming packets into messages for higher levels.
OSI Model Layer 4: Transport Layer
Transport Layer decides if data transmission should be on parallel path or single path.
Functions such as Multiplexing, Segmenting or Splitting on the data are done by this layer
It receives messages from the Session layer above it, convert the message into smaller units and passes it on to the Network layer.
Transport layer can be very complex, depending upon the network requirements.
Transport layer breaks the message (data) into small units so that they are handled more efficiently by the network layer.
OSI Model Layer 5: The Session Layer
Session Layer manages and synchronize the conversation between two different applications.
Transfer of data from source to destination session layer streams of data are marked and are resynchronized properly, so that the ends of the messages are not cut prematurely and data loss is avoided.
OSI Model Layer 6: The Presentation Layer
Presentation Layer takes care that the data is sent in such a way that the receiver will understand the information (data) and will be able to use the data.
While receiving the data, presentation layer transforms the data to be ready for the application layer.
Languages(syntax) can be different of the two communicating systems. Under this condition presentation layer plays a role of translator.
It perfroms Data compression, Data encryption, Data conversion etc.
OSI Model Layer 7: Application Layer
Application Layer is the topmost layer.
Transferring of files disturbing the results to the user is also done in this layer. Mail services, directory services, network resource etc are services provided by application layer.
This layer mainly holds application programs to act upon the received and to be sent data.
Prepared by: Srinivas Adapa
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