P7-Coun Psy - Q11- Describe counselling for depressed individuals. (You…
P7-Coun Psy - Q11- Describe counselling for depressed individuals.
Depression is a mood disorder characterized by low mood, a feeling of sadness, and a general loss of interest in things.
How does it feel?
If you have depression, you are likely to have at least five of the following depression symptoms:
You may feel:
like life isn’t worth living
constantly anxious, tearful and worried
like you can’t concentrate
irritable and intolerant of others
you are not getting enough enjoyment out of life
you have a lack of self-esteem
you have excessive and inappropriate guilt
you have no motivation or interest in things you used to enjoy
You may experience:
changes in sleeping patterns - broken nights or oversleeping
changes in eating patterns - loss of appetite or overeating
tiredness and a loss of energy
persistent headaches and/or stomach upsets
a slower speaking pattern than usual
loss of libido
for women, changes to menstrual cycle
You may also:
neglect hobbies and interests
isolate yourself from friends and family
take part in fewer social activities
notice your productivity falling at work
Why do we become depressed?
Distressing life events
Distressing life events can take their toll on us. Divorce, family problems or losing a job are all momentous in our lives that can alter our mood.
Losing someone that is close to you can increase the risk. It’s not always just the loss that causes depression, it’s the way we deal with it. If you don’t grieve or express your feelings properly, they can build up and contribute to depression.
Your childhood experiences can affect you in adult life. If you were physically or emotionally abused, or not taught to cope with troubles that enter your life, it could lead you to having problems as you grow up.
‘Frozen anger’ is a term that’s closely related to depression. You may have gone through something that caused you to become angry, but at the time you couldn’t express your feelings properly. This type of anger becomes suppressed; it can then build up and become a cause of depression.
Feeling like you’re alone, stressed, physically exhausted and/or have no one to talk to can all contribute to the condition.
hormonal problems, e.g. an underactive thyroid
viral infections, e.g. glandular fever or flu (prevalent in younger people)
painful or lasting illnesses, e.g. arthritis
life-threatening conditions, e.g. heart disease and cancer
Heavy drinking on a regular basis can make you more susceptible to developing depression.
Types of depression
Mild depression -
When depression symptoms have a limited impact on daily life. Generally, sufferers of mild depression will experience a persistent low mood and spirit. They may find it difficult to motivate themselves to do things they normally enjoy.
Major (clinical) depression
- A more severe form that can lead to hospital admission. Symptoms will be more prominent and interfere with daily life. They can affect eating habits, sleeping, and other day-to-day activities. Some sufferers may feel suicidal and that life is no longer worth living.
- A form of manic depression characterised by extreme highs and lows. For example when a period of hyperactivity where sufferers are excited and planning overambitious tasks is followed by a period of severe depression.
- A condition that can develop in men and women after childbirth.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
- A form that’s closely related to the length of days. It typically occurs in the autumn and winter months when the days are shorter. Symptoms tend to alleviate when the days get brighter and longer.
Treatment for depression
Depression is a treatable condition, even in its most severe of form.The two most common forms offered are
counselling for depression
. These are often used in combination - particularly in more severe cases.
Counselling for depression
The following types of counselling and psychotherapy have been proven effective in treating depression:
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
According to guidelines issued by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), cognitive behavioural therapy is among the recommended therapies for treating depression. This therapy is based on the premise that the way we behave and think affects the way we feel. People with depression tend to have self-defeating thoughts that can lead to negative behaviour. CBT aims to help them identify and address these negative thoughts.
Counselling for Depression (CfD)
CfD is a model of psychological therapy recommended by NICE for the treatment of depression and approved for delivery within the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Programme (IAPT). Counselling for Depression is one of the therapies recommended in addition to CBT.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)
This type of talking therapy is specifically designed to help those who suffer from recurring depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy combines elements of cognitive therapy and mindfulness techniques (breathing exercises and meditation) to help break negative thought patterns.
Interpersonal therapy (IPT)
Interpersonal therapy focuses on how our mental health affects our relationships and how our relationships affect us. The thinking behind it is that psychological symptoms, such as depression, are typically a response to a difficulty in our communication with others. The symptoms gained from this can also cause the communication to deteriorate, thus causing a cycle. IPT works best with those who have identifiable problems.
Psychodynamic therapy aims to find out how a person’s unconscious thoughts affect their behaviour. This type of therapy can help individuals understand and unravel their deep-rooted feelings and experiences.
Although the term ‘group therapy’ can be applied to many talking therapies, it’s mainly used with those that work best within a group dynamic. One of the main benefits of this type of therapy is the support network of peers that are going through the same sort of issues. It aims to encourage you to share your experiences and work on understanding yourself better.
Art therapy uses artistic mediums to help individuals explore their emotions in a new way. It uses art as a form of communication - this is especially good for those who find it difficult to verbalise their feelings.
Alongside counselling, medication may be prescribed by GPs to help sufferers who are experiencing moderate to severe depression. Antidepressants can help to ease common depression symptoms such as poor sleep, low mood, and poor concentration.
Prepared by: Srinivas Adapa;