Analysen vorhandener Daten (correlational): Observational research uses data from donation surveys or actual giving collected from tax returns; for reviews, see Andreoni (2006), Powell and Steinberg (2006), Kolm and Ythier (2006).
LAbor-Experimente find a positive relationship between others’ contributions and one's own (Bardsley, 2000; Croson, 2007; Fischbacher et al., 2001; Keser and van Winden, 2000; Weimann, 1994). However, these studies have important limitations. First, the contributions of others are typically measured rather than manipulated, thus the experiments do not provide a tight test of the theories
Feld-Expeiment (Levitt and List, 2007). This paper addresses both these concerns by manipulating the social information donors receive in a natural (field) setting.
Feld-Experimente - nicht genau unser Thema:
List and Lucking‐Reiley (2002) (seed money), Eckel and Grossman (2005) (rebates and matching), Falk (2005) (gift exchange)
---Gründe für Entscheidung ob und wieviel geben:
Psychological research (Ajzen, 1991; Brooks, 2004) has shown that decisions about whether to act and about how much to act, although positively correlated, may be caused by different psychological motivations. Similarly, Andreoni (2006) suggested that altruism tells people what causes to give to but that warm‐glow tells people how much to give.
---Gründe, wieso social information behaviour beeinflusst (perception change)
In other work, we provide evidence for conformity to social norms as an explanation; we found that social information changes people's perceptions of both what others give to the non‐profit organisation and what the appropriate contribution is. These changed perceptions correlate at the individual level with self‐reported contribution behaviour; individuals whose perceptions change more, give more than individuals whose perceptions change less (Croson et al. 2008).
Importance of social information in economic studies/situations
Others have suggested the importance of norms in actual (Akerlof, 1982) and experimental (Fehr et al., 1998) labour markets, whether to work or live on welfare (Lindbeck et al., 1999), saving and consumption (Lindbeck, 1997) and on profit seeking entitlements (Kahneman et al., 1986).