CHAPTER 7 CONTEMPORARY IDEOLOGY (Capitalism (Supporters argue that it: …
CHAPTER 7 CONTEMPORARY IDEOLOGY
Atheism is the absence of belief in any Gods or spiritual beings. The word Atheism comes from a,meaning without,and theism meaning belief in god
Many atheist live by the same moral & believe they come to amoral without any influence of a God
Reason atheist dont believe
They dont find sufficient evidence to support religion
They live in irreligious culture
They have no interest in religion
They believe that religion has done a lot of harm in the world.
They find religion to be nonsensical
Founded in 1963 by Madalyn Murray O'Hair
Darwinism by Charles Robert Darwin
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed stating that all species of organism emerge and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive,& reproduce
Summary Darwin's Theory
Individual organism in nature differ from one another. some variation is inherited
Organism in nature produce more offspring than can survive & many those that survive do not reproduce
Because more organism are produced than survive, members of each species must compete resources
Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies, which combine elements of free markets with state intervention and in some cases economic planning
Critics of capitalism argue that it
establishes power in the hands of a minority capitalist class
that exists through the exploitation of the
majority working class and their labor
prioritizes profit over social good, natural resources and the environment
is an engine of inequality, corruption and economic instabilities
Supporters argue that it:
provides better products and innovation through competition
disperses wealth to all productive people
promotes pluralism and decentralization of power
creates strong economic growth
yields productivity and prosperity that greatly benefit society
Socialism is an economic and political system where the ways of making a living (factories, offices, etc.) are owned by the workers who run them and the people who depend on them, meaning the value made belongs to the people who make it, instead of a group of private owners.
There are two ways socialists think of the way society can own the means of making wealth:
the state (government of the country) is used
worker-owned cooperatives are used
Marxism was a specific type of socialism that came later (1850s-1880s).
Karl Marx was a philosopher of economics born in the German states in 1818.
Marx witnessed the capitalism of the early Industrial Revolution,
in which privately owned industries competed for profit with few or no government rules to protect workers or consumers.
Such capitalist systems,
Marx argued, created a class struggle between the ricfactory
owners(bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat).
is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society
Communist Society: A socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
Communism is an ideological and a social political movement. Its aim is to set up a “better version” of society. One that will have everyone own everything but controlled by the government.
This society would be based on the common ownership of the means of production and would not rely on social classes, or money
Secularism is the "indifference to, or rejection or exclusion of, religion and religious considerations”.
As a philosophy, secularism seeks to interpret life on principles taken solely from the material world, without recourse to religion
secularism means that governments should remain neutral on the matter of religion and should not enforce nor prohibit the free exercise of religion, leaving religious choice to the liberty of the people.
In political terms, secularism is a movement towards the separation of religion and government (often termed the separation of church and state). This can refer to reducing ties between a government and a state religion, replacing laws based on scripture (such as Sharia law) with civil laws, and eliminating discrimination on the basis of religion.
Is a political system in which nobbles were granted to use of land that legally belonged to the King. In return, the nobles agree to give their loyalty & military services to the King
Islamic approaches anti feudalism
Sahih Al Bukhari : We worked on farm more than anybody else in Medina. We used to rent the land at the yield of specific delimited portion of it to be given to the landlord. Sometimes the vegetation of that portion was affected by blights & others , while the remain safe. so Prophet Saw forbade this practice.