THE OTHER TRANSLATION PROCEDURES (:star: TRANSFERENCE (Emprunt, loan word,…
THE OTHER TRANSLATION PROCEDURES
Emprunt, loan word, transcription.
A SL word is transferred to TL text
A transferred word is adapted to the TL
Pronunciation and morphology
Applied to cultural words, it requires the use of a culture-free word thus generalising or neutralising the SL word/expression.
Literal translation of common collocations, names of organisations, the components of compounds (e.g. superman/Übermensch). Normally, through-translations should be used only when they are already recognized terms (e.g., international organisations like UNO/ONU, etc.)
SHIFT OR TRANSPOSITION
A shift (Catford) or transposition (Vinay and Darbelnet) involves a change in the grammar/part of speech from SL to TL.
A variation through a change of viewpoint, of perspective and very often of category of thought, e.g.,
:star: RECOGNISED TRANSLATION
You should use the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional terms (or other) (e.g., international organizations).
Or triplets, etc, combine two or more translation procedures for dealing with a single problem.
They are particularly common for cultural words, where transference may be combined with a functional or cultural equivalent