Ecology of the Peer Group (Macrosystem Influences on the Peer Group:…
Ecology of the Peer Group
The Peer Group as a Socializing Agent
Giving attention, approving of one's behavior, acceptance into the group, is occassionally unintentional yet still effective.
Imitation of behavior that is related to conformity. Modeling can affect behavior in that a child may learn how to do something, observe consequences, or learn how to behave in a new situation.
Rejection from the group, teasing, or physical aggression. Can likely entail victims and bullies.
Someone with more expertise (expert) helps someone with less experience (novice). Vygotsky's scaffolding in which knowledge can be gained from an apprenticeship with a master to achieve zone of proximal development.
Purpose of Peer Groups:
Satisfy belonging needs, preferred to other socializing agents, and they influence social, cognitive, and psychological development
The Peer Group's Influence on the Child
Social Competence and Conformity:
Behavior that conforms with an understanding of other's feelings and intentions, the ability to respond appropriately, and knowledge of the consequence of one's actions.
Social Competence and Conformity are dependent on the child's age, the situation, and their personal values.
Conceptions and reasonings about people, the self, relations between people, social groups' roles and rules, and the relation of such conceptions to social behavior.
The peer group serves as a measure of current and future adjustment. One's ability to deal with the social world depends on communicative skills, coordinating one's actions with others, reciprocity, cooperation, and competition.
on the Peer Group: Developmental Tasks
Getting Along with Others: Playing with children of the same age helps children learn how to get along with others and is a means to develop empathy.
Developing Morals and Values: This occurs in a social setting as the child learns which behaviors are appropriate and which are not.
Learning Appropriate Sociocultural Roles: The peer group allows children to try out roles learned at home, and expand on conflict resolution.
Achieving Personal Independence and Identity: As children socialize, they learn that their peers are resources to them (tangibly, emotionally, and socially).
Developmental Tasks are both an individual need and a societal demand. The peer group in turn provides the setting and means for children to achieve some of the expected developmental tasks.
on the Peer Group: Play/Activities
The Significance and Development of Play:
Play is the way that children learn about their environment, construct knowledge, and learn to plan and self-regulate. Play types entail: Solitary, Onlooker, Parallel, Associative, and Cooperative.
Infant/Toddler Peer Activities:
Early peer experiences are present in infancy especially dependent on the family situation, availability of age mates, temperament, and social competence.
Early Childhood Peer Activities:
Peer interaction from age 2 to 5 increases in frequency and complexity. Successful interactions at this stage depend on communication, empathy, and ability to view the perspective of another.
Middle Childhood/Preadolescent Peer Activities:
Social interactions at this stage increase from 10 to 30 percent. At this stage, informal groups created by the children are initiated.
on the Peer Group: Adult-Child Interactions
Adult-Structured Peer Groups:
Formal groups (adult initiated) such as team sport groups, Clubs, Scouts, and Church groups. These are usually accompanied by rules, guidelines, and suggestions from adults.
Adult-Mediated Group Interaction:
How adults mediate the group structure - specifically whether it is competitive or cooperative - influences children's behavior.
Adult Leadership Styles:
There are three types of adult leadership styles. Authoritarian is where the adult is not actively participating but is offering criticism, praise, and delegation of tasks. Democratic is where tasks are decided collectively, praise and criticism are objective, and the adult participates. Permissive is where the leader does not participate and comments about performance are very infrequent.
Sports in the United States are increasing. They are a means of physical activity as well as opportunity for building leadership skills, loyalty, relationships, and other valuable character traits. Not all children benefit from playing sports.
Peer Group Interactions
: A child's acceptance by peers and successful interactions with them depend on a willingness to cooperate and positively interact with other children. Lack of acceptance and rejection could lead to maladjustment of children.
Group Dynamics and Social Hierarchy:
The peer group is a microsystem with dynamics roles and relationships affecting its participants. These dynamic roles involve cliques, inclusion, exclusion, bullies, and victims.
Consists of peer collaboration, tutoring, and peer counseling. By doing this, peers learn how to problem solve, analyze and synthesize information, care, help, and give support.
Consists of participation in gangs where children form an allegiance for a common cause and engage in criminal activity.