BEING MANAGED Employee well-being (Factors challenging employee well…
A measure of a person's happiness, psychological, emotional and mental state. Linked to how satisfied a person feels about both themselves and their life.
Why should employer's worry about employee well-being?
Increased retention rates
Better able to attract quality candidates
Improved productivity, quality of work, and overall morale, and culture of the organisation
More likely to avoid high costs associated with absenteeism, presenteeism, injury and illness.
What leads to employee well-being?
Work: any instrumental activity intended to provide goods and services to support life
Family: persons related by biological ties, marriage, social custom or adoption.
Life: all activities and relationships that belong to work, family and any other domain of one's existence.
Outcome of the intersection of an employer's work and family life
The intersection between work and family/life results in:
Conflict; a form of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect
Enrichment; the extent to which experiences in one role (e.g. work) improve the quality of life in the other role (e.g. family).
Balance; the individual's perception that work and non-work activities are compatible and promote growth in accordance with an individual's current life priorities.
Factors challenging employee well-being
Lack of job security
Advancements in technology
Increasing work intensity load, and hours, especially among professionals
Rise in dual-income/career/families
Ageing population (i.e elderly dependents)
Stagnant gender norms pertaining to work and non-work domains
Strain: when stressors in one role drains an individual's mental/physical energy to perform the other role
Behavioral; when behaviors required of one role are incompatible with behavioral expectations of the other role
Forms; time: when time used in performing one role minimizes an individual's ability to perform in the other role
Directionality; work-to-family conflict (W-F), family-to-work conflict (F-W)
Factors influencing work-family conflict
Family; Instrumental: relief from family-related duties, Emotional: encouragement and understanding
Work; family supportive supervisor, family supportive organisational policies (e.g. flexitime, telework)
Individual; Coping strategies used by individuals (e.g problem-focused, avoidance)
Public Policy; legislation pertaining to employee rights
Conflict, coping and well-being
Work-support, conflict and well-being; a family-supportive supervisor reduces the probability of W-F conflict, thus increasing well-being. Complex relationships exist between organisational family supportive policies such as flexitime and telework and employee experiences of conflict and therefore, wellbeing
Problem-focused coping, conflict and well-being; likelihood of problem-focused coping to reduce conflict and this increase well-being is a function of the degree of control an individual has in relation to a given life domain
Family support, conflict and well-being; instrumental and emotional assistance likely to be intertwined resulting in reduced F-W conflict. This in turn is likely to positively impact on well-being