HUMAN PURSUITS (PURUSHARTHAS) (Dharma, Moksha, Artha, Kama), THE…
HUMAN PURSUITS (PURUSHARTHAS)
THE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM
The Locus of Error - Self
The Self Judgement of Inadequacy
The Attempt for Completeness through Change
Personal Values Determine Types of Change
Attitude Towards Change
Gain Through Change Always Involves Loss
The Analysis of Experience
It is through analysing my experiences and concluding that inspite of all pleasures and security, I am still an unfulfilled inadequate person. This realisation makes one mature.
Maturity is shown NOT by seeking
experiences but by discovering, through an analysis of experiences, the basic human problem: what one wants is to be non-deficient, adequate - and that experiences do not make one non-deficient, adequate.
Inadequacy is centred on Oneself
Human problem CANNOT be solved by pursuit or renouncing of worldly things.
cures my inadequacy
Insight into Adequacy : the Norm for Self-Judgment
Everyone has moments of pleasure or joy where one experiences oneself as and adequate person - complete, full.
This experience of NOT wanting anything becomes the norm by which the experience of being wanting in something is judged and is judged as something one does NOT care for.
The struggle for artha and kama (security and pleasure) is usually abortive, futile, unfruitful and when successful, momentary at best - the experience for adequacy does NOT last.
The Direct Search for Freedom from Inadequacy
Basic human desire is to be adequate, free from all incompleteness. Artha and Kama do not fulfill the objective. Hence, Moksha becomes relevant.
Moksha means freedom from inadequacy. I seek a solution to my inadequacy which is a problem centered on myself. I become a seeker - a
- the one who desires freedom from all limitation.
A realisation that dharmic pursuit of artha and kama does not solve my inadequacy brings about dispassion,
, towards security and pleasures.
Thus, a mature person, now a
gains dispassion towards his former pursuits and is ready to seek liberation,
The Experience of Adequacy
THE INFORMED SEEKER
The Futile Solution
Mature person realises that the pursuit of adequacy through artha and kama is futile.
Equally futile is the attempt to gain adequacy through the giving up of such pursuits.
Distinguishing Knowledge and Experience
If the contradictory experiences of adequacy and inadequacy are to be reconciled, then one has to distinguish between knowledge and experience.
Knowledge is the grasp of WHAT IS. Experience is the direct perceptual participation in an event.
Knowledge includes perception or experience, but experience need NOT include knowledge.
Knowledge is something that can BOTH contradict experience and resolve the seeming contradictions in experience.
Knowledge CANNOT be contradicted.
To qualify as knowledge, any given set of perpetual impressions gained form experience MUST pass the test of INQUIRY (vichara)
Eg. of sunrise and sunset
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Inquiry into the Nature of Oneself -
The contradictory experiences of adequacy and inadequacy results into reflections which need inquiry
The inquiry necessary to resolve the particular question of self-adequacy is called
Atma means I or self and vicara is inquiry
I must examine and analyse experiences to see which validly reflect fact and which are illusory
Analysis of the Search for Adequacy
Adequacy is NOT an object to be sought. Inadequacy is centered on me. I seek adequacy as myself.
But I seek adequacy through pursuit of artha and kama until finally I become mature and realize that these do NOT lead me to adequacy.
Neither pravritti, the pursuit of gain, nor nivrutti, the renunciation of gain solves the problem of inadequacy.
I recognize that what I seek is adequacy itself. Thus I become a mumuksu - a seeker of adequacy
The Nature of Achievement
Not yet achieved in time and space. Can be achieved through effort. Both the efforts and the results or product are limited in nature
Adequacy is nothing less than limitlessness. hence, cannot be be apraptasya prapti as one seeks to discover oneself as a full, complete, adequate being without even a hint of limitation. This discovery does not - cannot - take place through a process of becoming.
The Gain of the Already-Achieved
If adequacy is not the result of apraptasya prapti, perhaps it can be an accomplishment of praptasya prapti. But seems ridiculous. How can one achieve what is already achieved?
Sadhaka and Sadhya both are the SAME
The only possible explanation of this situation is ignorance.
Freedom from Inadequacy : An already Achieved Goal
The first 3 goals of human life of dharma, artha and kama deal with not-yet-achieved goals which are separate from the seeker in time and space. These must be gained by effort, which being limited, produces limited effort.
The fourth goal of moksha, freedom from inadequacy, limitlessness CANNOT be produced by limited effort. Hence, cannot be gained by effort. Hence, only possible to classify as and already-achieved goal. But is hidden from the seeker due to ignorance.
The Informed Seeker
Seeker of adequacy is a mumuksu. When he realises that he is not different from what he seeks, he becomes an informed mumusu called a jinyasu.
Every mumuksu will become a jinyasu (one who seeks not to
something but to
something) when he understands the nature of the problem. The problem is to dispel self-ignorance. The solution is to gain self-knowledge.
Self Knowledge is what is called liberation. For this, self-inquiry is necessary. This inquiry into the self which leads to discovery of the nature of oneself, is called VEDANTA.
My idea of adequacy comes from experience of moments of such adequacy when I seek no other thing - i need nothing - i need no change, either in situation or in me.
Joy and inadequacy cannot exist in me at the same moment. When i am joyful, I am adequate. There is no degree of adequacy. Anything other than adequacy is inadequacy.
The rare moments of sufficiency give me a standard by which to judge myself as insufficient the rest of the time.
Mundaka Upanishad - (I ii 12) Ukti :
Having analysed worldly experiences achieved through effort, a mature person gains dispassion, discerns that the uncreated (limitlessness) cannot be produced by action.
To know THAT (the uncreated limitlessness), he, with twigs in hand, should go to a teacher who is learned in the scriptures, and who is steadfast in the knowledge of himself
The Teacher explains Knowledge in Context at the Right time
He uses Traditional Methodology by Destroying wrong Conclusions
He flows the knowledge the
that self ignorance is not the ignorance of self but a realization that the seeker is saught
Such Traditional Teaching of self knowledge is called Vedanta
Each Veda has Two Sections
Sections deals with Actions through Rituals
Both Section leads with Fulfillment of Desires and Moksha
Section Deals with Knowledge
INTRODUCTION TO VEDANTA