Henry VII and Henry VIII government (seneca) (Henry VII (Parliament…
Henry VII and Henry VIII government (seneca)
Henry VII's first parliament
Parliament helped Henry VII consolidate control after Bosworth
Acts of Attainder were issued against those who had fought Henry VII at Bosworth
Parliament granted Henry VII customs duty for life. This was standard practice
The 1486 Act of Resumption returned to the Crown all the land it had granted away since 1455.
Parliament and taxation
Only Parliament could allow extra taxation
Parliament did this for Henry’s foreign policy in 1489 (Brittany), 1491-2 (France)
When the Crown became wealthier, Henry VII became less dependent on Parliament.
Parliament and law and order
Parliament passed laws to strengthen law and order
It passed a law to give JPs more powers in 1495
Parliament could pass Acts of Attainder (meaning it could assume judiciary powers)
Needed after the Battle of Stoke (1487), the Northern Rebellion (1489) and against Sir William Stanley (1495).
Henry's uses of parliament
Henry VII called parliament only when necessary
7 times in his whole reign
Statute law was stronger than royal proclamations. It was used to enforce important, more unpopular, policies.
The Council Learned in Law
This council was very unpopular
Its aim was to pursue Henry VII’s feudal rights (the various financial payments and soldiers owed to the monarch in return for the land he owned and distributed)
The Council Learned in the Law investigated feudal rights that were forgotten or had lapsed
It also enforced bonds and recognisances (obligations to perform certain actions before court)
Overall what did it allow?
The council increased Crown revenue and kept nobles under scrutiny
Where did Henry have the most control and how did he increase it in the areas where he did not?
He had the most control in the South and East, he did not have much control of the North
He relied on Justices of the Peace (JPs) to maintain order
What did Henry allow in different areas and give an example?
He allowed different systems of government for different regions
Wales was controlled by the Council of Wales
227 men were listed, but it was a much smaller group which met
The Royal Council advised Henry and helped him with day-to-day government
John Morton and Reginald Bray were two important councillors
The Privy Chamber
The Privy Chamber was staffed by lower ranking members of the Royal Household, not nobles
Allowed great access to the king allowing an opportunity to influence his ideas
Henry VII increasingly relied on his Privy Chamber after the treason of Sir William Stanley and other leading members of his Household in 1495.
Crown and Parliament
Parliament's pressure on the Pope
Parliament's pressure on the clergy
The Supplication Against the Ordinaries in March 1532 demanded that the king deal with the corruption of the clergy.
In 1531 Henry VIII pardoned the clergy of crimes against him. But he also forced them to recognise him as the lawmaker and head of the Church.
Parliament and the Henrician Reformation
Henry VIII and Cromwell had relied on Parliament to pass the necessary legislation. This was new ground because:
It gave Parliament a role in changing the country’s religion.
It acknowledged the need for parliamentary agreement to secure such important changes. A precedent had been set.
Legislation parliament passed
Treason Act 1534
Act of Supremacy 1534
Early use of Parliament
Before 1529, Henry VIII only called Parliament twice