The Liberal State and the Giolitti Era (Giolitii's Foreign Policy…
The Liberal State and the Giolitti Era
Success's and failures of Giolittis domestic and foreign policy
Dominates as PM or from behind the scenes from 1901-1914
Deputies are paid from 1911
Franchise extended in 1912 to all males over 30. Now 8 million people can vote
The economy and industry developed in this period
Trade and employment increases
More money spent on education (better run under provincial authorities) and communications
Laws to introduced to regulate working hours and conditions
Working day for women reduced to 11 hours per day (1902) and child labor under 12 controlled (1901)
Old age pensions and health insurance introduced (1898)
In 1913 state subsidised sickness and an old age fund for the merchant Navy were introduced
Public holidays enforced
Better public transport. Italian railways nationalised in 1904
In 1906 a new policy of non-intervention in labour disputes was announced and established arbitration courts to promote negotiation - policies designed to appeal to the socialists.
He tries to appeal to the catholic vote. He drops a bill concerning divorce in 1904 and Catholics and Liberals often cooperate at a local level.
Does Giolitti try to appeal to too many different groups (Socialists, Catholics and Nationalists) He brings representatives of both Catholics and Socialists into government but does not please anyone.
Both the left and right want more. Many begin to turn away from the Liberals and demand action. Many revolutionary socialists will never be satisfied.
He did not solve the "Roman question" (disputed territory between the pope) and many catholics felt he prioritised the socialists over them.
Nationalists thought Giolitti was weak and they were anti-liberal and anti-socialist.
High taxation in place and hits poor the hardest
Introduction of conscription to the Army was not popular
He upsets groups such as the industrialists who are worried about the rise of socialism
Divisions between the North and South remained. Peasants in the South remain disappointed.
He uses the method of trasformismo. Bribery and corruption and shady deals are still common in parliament
By 1914 the economy is worsening and unemployment rises
In 1914 there are left wing demonstrations and riots in Ancona and Romagna. June 1914 was called red week. 100,000 soldiers are called into action to stop a general strike. Had Giolittis policies contributed to this?
He miscalculates in 1914 over WW1 and resigns in March 1914. He opposes intervention and is out of office for 6 years.
Giolitii's Foreign Policy
The Libyan war 1911-1912:
Invaded Libya on the 29th September 1911
The Italians though the campaign would be easy because Libya was separated from the rest of the Ottoman empire
Italy could blockade the sea but did not have the resources ti jeep up with the retreating forces
It was the first time aircraft had been used to drop bombs
The collapse of the Ottoman empire ended the war in Italy's favour
Reaction of the Colonisation of Libya:
By 1912, it seemed that Giolitti's programme had been successful.
His social reforms had secured the support of the socialists (PSI) deputies in parliament, the Church was co-operating with the liberals and the victory in Libya had galvanised nationalist support for government
However the Libyan War and the introduction of universal suffrage were to have sever consequences for Giolitt's government
The Impact of Libya on Giolitti's Relations
The Nationalists took credit for the war and their popularity rose where as Giolitti's fell
The war destroyed Giolitti's relationship with the Socialists
All of his support from the Socialists was withdrew and his policies meant nothing
The Impact of the franchise extension of 1912
Details of the extension:
Giolitti gives all men over the age of 30 and to all soldiers who served in Libya
He thought increasing suffrage would make Italy more united and in return for extending the franchise he thought the people would vote for the Liberals
Results of the 1913 election:
Giolitti lost 70+ seats in the election
The Catholics, nationalists and socialists all gain seats
This shows Giolitti's idea had backfired completely
Situation in 1911:
Italy was in the triple alliance but often clashed with Austria-Hungary over the Irredenta lands in the Balkans.
The nationalists pressured Giolitti to take a more aggressive approach
Tried to occupy Abyssinia in 1884 but were utterly humiliated at the battle of Dogali
They tried to occupy it again 1896 but once were again were defeated this time at the battle of adowa
The Triple Alliance:
In 1882 Italy signed the triple alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary
Italy tried to get Tunisa in 1881 but were beaten to it by the French
This term refers to the belief that the process of unification should continue until all Italian speaking areas had been Incorporated into Italy
Giolitti's Government 1911:
Giolitti working with the different groups
Giolitti and the Nationalists:
In 1911 Giolitti invaded Libya to try and gain support of the Nationalists
This was unsuccessful however because it was the Nationalists who took credit for the invasion and took support from Giolitti
Giolitti first attempted to boost support through a liberal program of reform and economic modernisation which he though would undermine Nationalism
This was unsuccessful because it failed to halt the rise of nationalism.
Giolitti and the Catholic Church:
Giolitti offered concessions to the church in return for its support and in this sense he was successful as he was the first PM to get the support of the church
He also used 'absorption' like with the socialists by offering a series of policies and compromises in return for their support
Giolitti and the Socialists:
Giolitti absorbed the socialist deputies into the political system by offering a range of social reforms.
These included the banning of the employment under the age of 12 and the introduction of a maternity fund
In 1906 Giolitti asserted a new policy of non-intervention in Labour disputes and the establishment of Arbitration courts. These courts settled disputes between employers and employees
This was successful as the socialist leader welcomed these courts and saw it as a better way of getting workers better pay without violence
Threats to Liberal Italy in 1911:
Gained lots of strength at the start of the century
Were supported by the educated middle class and they could undermine the rising socialism
Giolitti found it very difficult to deal with them
The Catholic Church:
Had the power to influence the Italian people and still posed a threat
Had lost faith in the Liberal politicians and believed only socialism could solve Italys problems
Socialism grew rapidly and there was a considerable amount strike action
Party was split between the moderates and maximalists
The socialists, Catholics and Nationalists
The Nationalists were very hard to work with.
This was because Italy was still not fully united as many lands which they thought were Italian speaking were not incorporated into the Liberal state (Irredenta lands)
In 1910 they formed the ANI
The nationalists took credit for the invasion of Libya and this took support away from Giolitti
Giolitti also priorititsed the Socialists which upset the Nationalists even more
Giolitti had to be careful with the church because he knew how difficult they could be
He said that the church and the state are 2 paralel lines which should never meet
Socialism had grown because of expansion of the cities in the North
They formed the PSI in 1892 and were lead by Filipo Turati
PSI was split between the 'moderates' who would work with the government and the 'maximalists' who would not work with the goverment
Problems faced by the Liberal Government 1903-1911
Influence of the Catholic Church and the problems this caused for Italy:
3 different popes
Catholic church was very powerful and had great influence
Majority of the population claimed negligence to the church
The pope resented the new kingdom because they took the papal states from him
Distrust between the government and the church
Pope did not want Catholics to vote
Social Problems in Italy:
42% of people in the North were illiterate compared to 80% in the South
In 1911 11% of those in the North were illiterate but 65% in the South were still illiterate
Lack of key resources
Living standards were very poor
Lack of national identity
Used militias and army to break up strikes
People in the south had to riot to express their opinion.
Economic Problems in Italy:
Industry in the North grew very quickly which further enhance the North/South divide
Industrialisation did not provide benefits to the wider population and living standards of both industrial and rural workers remained low
Protests against high taxes, unemployment and food shortages were common
Between 1901 and 1911 there were over 1,500 strikes which involved over 350,000 people.
Lacked key resources such as iron and coal
The new state inherited large debt cuased by the wars of unification
Major riots in Sicily
They established a single Italian market to abolish tariffs but this only harmed what little industry there was in the south
Military spending was much lower than other European nations
Political Problems in Italy:
No clealry defined politcal parties at this time
Italy operated on a system of trasfromismo so politicans could stay in power
In order to vote a person must be white, literate, have property and be male. Only 2% of the population could vote
Cabinet ministers had no party loyalty.
PM's were largely interchangeable. There 29 PMs between 1870 and 1922.
Very industrial - Industrial triangle Milan, Genoa and Turin
In 1880 there was wide scale migration to growing industrial towns
There was very good agricultural land
Little industry - can't make very much and can't make much money
The soil was exhausted by the 20th century and most peasants in the south were substance farmers.
Only large insufficient estates owned by the nobility.
By 1940 0.01% of the population owned 50% of the land
Frequent social unrest
Powerful gangs - Mafia in Naples - gang states