Biological Explanation of Crime (Brain Injury (Williams et al. 2010- of…
Biological Explanation of Crime
Jacobs et al. (1965) found that XYY men were over represented in Scottish prisons.
Re and Birkhoff (2015)- in a meta analysis of 50 years of evidence, found there to be no link between XYY chromosome holders and criminal activity. It was suggested, it was more likely down to their struggle to integrate within society and find a job.
1 in 10,000 men have an extra Y chromosome. It results in taller men, lower intelligence and lack of impulse control. These men tend to struggle to blend with society.
Williams et al. 2010- of 196 inmates in a UK prison, 60% had experienced one or more head injury in their youth.
Fazel et al. 2011- Examined Swedish population register from 1979-2009 and found those with an acquired brain injury, 8.8% had committed a violent crime.
Ignore other factors. A brain injury may lead to substance abuse to cope, leading to crime.
Brain doesn't fully develop until mid 20's, an injury may affect development.
Associated with destabilised mood, lack of concentration and difficulty in making decisions
Farrington et al (1982) said there was little evidence that Eysenck's EPI questionnaire was accurate in predict re-offending behavior.
Digman (1990) proposed a Five-Factor model, in which he added to Eysenck's crimial personality typpe, suggesting low levels of openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness were linked to offending.
Boduszek (2013) in a study of repeat offenders (133 violent criminals and 179 non violent) found that some of Eysenck's proposed personality traits to be high. Psychotisism, neurotisism and extroversion.
Lipsey and Derzon (1998) suggested that impulsivity would be a better predictor of crime.
Eysenck's theory marks a specific type of criminal, it wont apply to all as there are so many different crimes. (murder to fraud)
Raine 1990- electrodes placed on 3 year olds' fingers (1,795) to measure a fear response when an unpleasant noise was played. Children who didn't elicit a fear response, 20 years on, were more likely to commit crime.
Pardini et al. (2014)- Neuroimaging scans of 26 year old males' brains. Those with a smaller amygdala were 3x more likely to show aggressive, violent outbursts 3 years on.
Part of the startle response, regarded as the emotion center of the brain.
Amygdala is influenced by the orbitofrontal cortex. A dysfunction here could be the cause of a dysfunctional amygdala, but it is hard to separate the two.
Mednick (1997) found that 87% of adoptees with biological fathers with a criminal history, went on to commit crimes, despite not living with their biological family.